Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Economics (Asian Development) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Economics (Asian Development) - Essay ExampleThe planning mind set is in tour linked to previously discredited theories. Such as that poverty is due to a poverty confine which can only be alleviated by a large inflow of aid from sizable country to poor countries. The aid inflow is of course administered by this same planning apparatus.This is a destructive news for worlds poor as historically poverty has been end by central planners. It is only ended by searches both economical and political who explore solution by trial and error. Have a way to get feedback on the ones that work and then expand all of these in an unplanned intuitive way. Examples of searches are firms in private market and democraticallyOf course there are hard questions some directions of casualty and exactly which attributes of political and economic exemption are closely crucial for development. However to adopt with the 1st problem. Since researchers know a little bit about the determinants of dingy gov t studies can explore whether bad govt causes poverty.The research is less victorful at identifying which aspect of bad govt matters such as democracy versus corruptness vs. economic freedom. Different dimensions of good govt tend to come together in packages, so it is hard to communicate which is causing economic development. This last issue is such(prenominal) harder to resolve but the correlation are at least supportive of strong theoretical priors that democratic and market accountability go with economic success not to mention the vast historical and case study literature that supports this conclusion. The variance of outcome is much higher at low levels of political and economic freedom than at high levels. For countries with nearly free freedom all of them are rich within a narrow range. For countries with intermediate level of freedom there is a vast range of development outcomes.A few years ago what most people had in mind when they thought of India was land of tigers, the land of taj mahal and a land of

Monday, April 29, 2019

Stock Price Movement of McGraw-Hill Publishing Inc Research Paper

Stock charge Movement of McGraw-Hill make Inc - Research Paper ExampleAs a further proof, consider the clear or loss faced by an investor who invests $1000 in the stocks of the company on October 14, 2008 and sells those very stocks precisely 52 weeks later on October 15, 2009. For simplicity, the opening prices of the stocks have been taken into account.Profit/Loss after investmentOn October 14, 2008, opening stock price of McGraw-Hill Publishing = $28.06Hence, with $1000, list of stocks that the investor purchased = (1000/28.06) 35.64However, since number of stocks cannot be in fractions, so, 35 stocks are being considered.So, the purchasing price of 35 stocks = $982.10.Again, on October 15, 2009, opening stock price of McGraw-Hill Publishing = $29.25Hence, the gross return to the investor after selling 35 stocks = $(29.25 x 35) = $1023.75.Hence, net kale to the investor after 52-weeks = $ (1023.75 982.10) = + $41.65. final resultAlthough there had been a net profit in the long-run, but the company had been subject to a number of short-run losses mainly because of inconsistency surrounding some overhanging legal issues. However, Standard & Poors which also is owned by MHP and accounts for 75 percent of the company finances, made a huge profit by mid-October, 2009, due to a large number of bond issuance, that led the parent organisation to commit much higher proceeds and consequently, its share price rose to an amount, 25 percent more than what it was on the same day the previous year (Reuters, October 11, 2009).

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Optimal Number Of Firms In The Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Optimal Number Of Firms In The Market - Essay faceImagine if the world is consuming what has been given to them, the world is being operated on daily basis, such as a limited amount of diet is prepargond daily and in order to prevent the food from getting stale, people consume every unit of it, is it possible Of course there is no outlook for such situation, so we have to consider even bigger policies for production and consumption, may be we set up use the past records of what is the best direct of production and consumption or at which particular level firms are having maximum profit and minimum loss. We now have to consider the importance of the circular feed or economic cycle, the market system heavily relies on the supply and demand to solve the three study arising problems that are What goods and services will be produced, it is determined by the daily purchasing decisions of the customers as keeping it on the yearly basis can be very risky, one can perk up that over the past few years the bird flue took place significantly, therefore we can non rely on yearly basis as the behavior of consumers can change unpredictably. The second problem is How things or goods produced would be rated in terms of pricing, of course there is a competition everywhere, so the problem of differentiating the product arises. taking the example of bird flue there are many other issues that are very leafy vegetable in every day life such as at times there is drastic change in the technological market, such as everyday a new computer engineering replaces the old one which eventu exclusivelyy results in greater competition and brand switching. The third issue is For whome things are produced, here the focus is obviously on consumers and their level of consumption, but supply and demand has a major role to play here. The immediate task the companies have to face is to determine the wages, land rents, interest judge and many factors related to everyday life, it is expla ined thoroughly later in this discussion. The circular shine is all establish on the previously discussed three problems. What the flow intends to show is that all the money is constantly moving in spite of appearance a frame of a country, there are minor changes but over all the flow is constant until and unless some big change takes place such as war. The circular flow is all comprised of four things, those are product markets (prices are set by the markets keeping in view the scenario), class markets (the buyer behavior which keeps on shifting but over all the money utilization and spend is unchangeable), the business sector (which pays the rents and wages to the people working, who are also at the same time are households) and the factor markets (which keep on changing the rents, wages, interests but over all the wealth remains at bottom the country, if less rent for one person may be much higher for another person). Until and unless these problems would not be solved which of course cannot be solved the firms would find it impossible to be operated at an optimal level.Dollar votes of households interact with business supply in the product markets at top, helping to determine what is produced.

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Tesla (electric car company) Marketing Analysis Essay

Tesla ( galvanic car car alliance) Marketing Analysis - Essay typeThe company has its headquarters based in California, U.S.A, and it has principles aimed at facilitating development of Models in order to attain its aim of first customer delivery (Tesla Motors, 2010, p. 4). This go forth facilitate the efforts of pursuing new electric power teach opportunities and automobile manufactures. In fact, the paper will focus on conducting SWOT, PESTEL, porters five forces, commercialiseing mix and marketing action plan analysis on Tesla Company. SWOT ANALYSIS Strength Tesla write a licensing deal with lotus cars in order to convert one of their sport fabrics in to an electric car, which was lightweight, small car with all the external body panels made of plastic. On the other hand, the Tesla Roadster has induce the first mainstream electric vehicle enquired by celebrities, thus bringing a more desirable model S to the market. The company has managed to develop their first electr ic sport car The Roadster, and supplied to other manufactures standardised Toyota with more technological expertise in the field of electric transmission and train drive (GlobalData, 2012, p. 1). The company has also developed a vehicle, which is entirely in house, whereby sub-assemblies atomic number 18 required. The platform developed for Model S has facilitates the application of the crossover model and any other model. In fact, Tesla was the first company to produce electric vehicle and they piss stood by the business model to collaborate zero emissions with quality performance design. flunk The development of the vehicles and sub-assemblies has resulted to an increment of production personify, hence they do not achieve economic of scale. Products have a higher price than their competitors who sell combustion engine powered vehicles. The Roadster has phased out and the sales have reduced, and this is an indication that revenues will come from the Model S. The models have lo w brand recognition hence, there will be difficulties in convincing the customers concerning the superiority of their preferred options of the brand. The other weakness of Model S is that it may not be available until 2012, hence giving a chance to competitors to produce and market their electric vehicles before the release of Model S by Tesla, thus they will take up the market share (Binkiewicz, Chen & Czubakowski, 2008, p. 5). Opportunity The company has been benefiting from support by the government across the globe, since their products are environmentally friendly, thus they have been exempted from duties. The company has also been offered support by the Mercedes Smart car, which has results to leaning the way they female genitalia launch in near future. Tesla has a chance to improve the quality control process in order to reduce their cost, hence increasing enthusiasm. The other opportunity relates to the rise of gas prices, whereby people are seeking alternative ways of tra velling. In this case, the company acquires a prime opportunity to depict the benefits associated to their products and the cost friendliness to customers. Threats There are difficulties involved in production, distribution and selling of the

Friday, April 26, 2019

My Job Diary Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

My Job Diary - Term Paper pillowcaseThe human resource manager introduces me to the chief meeter from the auditing department of the insurance company. The chief auditor concludes the daytimelight in the evening by promising me that the next day I will be lie in the auditing department within the company.The second day of my internship, I arrive at the office at 8.00 am I am gaining confidence in this endeavor. I meet up with the chief auditor in his office to my surprise, he had called the main employees from the auditing department in his conference room for a prescribed introduction procedure.The chief auditor has put me on the hands of the supervisor we manage to move from virtuoso station to another within the auditing department getting to know what each station and employee contributions to the whole mental process of the department. After the tour, the supervisor winds up the day by talks on how the company has provided the employees with a conducive work environment.T he third day of my internship, the chief auditor, gives me the room to ask anybody any question concerning the auditing department. I pretend been instructed to visit any part of the department I do not feel well acquainted. Technically, I am taking a solo tour getting to know all the paths and corners within the company.My day in the office as usual commencements at 8.00 am, under the instructions of the chief auditor, the supervisor takes me to sections where the cashbox reconciliation audits are handled. I get familiar with the employees and the work they do in that section.I start working on the reconciliation audits by myself since I have mastered the procedures to follow. I realize that my further is not the same as the other co-workers, but with time, I know I will fancy up.With the help of a co-worker, I learn how to work with both soft and hard copy of the audits.

Thursday, April 25, 2019

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIES IN SSA (CASE STUDY THE Thesis Proposal

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIES IN SSA (CASE STUDY THE CAMEROON evolution CORPORATION IN CAMEROON) - Thesis Proposal ExampleOur research shows CDCs performance is loosely estimable through not exceptional and is vital of the steady lives of thousands of people working there.The economic growth of sub-Saharan African countries appears largely on their oil, mineral wealth and agricultural products. Being one of the driest areas in the world, the SSA countries depend upon their agro-industry for food commodities largely. There are many foreign as well as domestic agro companies precede in these countries. According to UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization, their main aim is to focus on change magnitude agro-industrial value added and employment along the entire agribusiness value chain in agriculture, industry and service. However, the impacts of these agricultural development companies which operate more or less like corporate conglomerates are pass ing debated. Environmentalists strongly argue, these companies are depleting the fertility of the soil in these areas by forcing the farmers to grow cash crops continuously. On the some other hand, these companies are highly responsible for providing a steady employment to most of the citizens in the rural areas of the SSA countries. The fee provided by them serves as a backbone for many Sub-Saharan countries economy. These companies help in improving the base of these nations to a great extent and help in improvement of various industries related to agriculture.Industrialization is generally looked upon as a major rival for agriculture. But, agriculture also serves as a main computer address for related industries in small economies prevalent among the SSA countries. The term Agro-Industries originated before a few years referring to industries which colligate agriculture and its supporting activities together. These industries deal with packaging and processing of agricultura l goods, modernization of agricultural practices and efficient

Nintendo Corporation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nintendo corporation - Research Paper ExampleFrom this paper it is clear that the internal resources include the strengths and weaknesses magical spell its external resources are the opportunities and threats. Nintendo Corporation should strive to maximize its strengths and opportunities while at the same time minimizing its weaknesses and threats. Nintendo Corporation boasts of strong, formidable and established brands in the world market. Most of its products are unrivalled putting it in a better position to command and dictate the taste of the market. For instance, the Nintendo 3DS that was initiated in the US in serve 27, 2011 enables the users to catch up with contents in 3D without necessarily using the special glasses. Additionally, the Wii that comes in different advanced ultra features has made the product the best selling in the world. The corporation also has a robust and looker escalation in its revenue. Although the company was founded in Tokyo, Japan, it now has b ranches in all major world markets of the world. As of March 2011, the conclusion of their economic year, the entire proceeds of the corporation was $ 4799.40. This shows that company stands in better grounds in terms of assets and strengths. Besides, Nintendo Co. Ltd. has a strong cash flow system. The operating cash flow indicates the amount of specie in cash that the firm generates when it sells its products or renders the services. It is calculated by subtracting the firms taxes from the taxes. As of march, 2011, the cash flow for Nintendo was $ 1.19 billion. The major fault that this corporation faces is the shortages of inventories.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Recalls on vehicles at Ford Motor Company Case Study

Recalls on vehicles at carrefour Motor political party - Case Study ExampleFord is one such automobile company, whose appellation has been associated with a significant number of recalls in the recent times. The aim of this paper is to make use of online accessible data to shed light on the number of recalls, reasons associated with them, steps taken by the company to domesticise the mistakes and results that these measures have yielded so far.This study will help analyze the causes for mishaps that occur in the automobile manufacturing surgical operation at ford. The analysis of the various recalls and reasons for each will highlight aspects that need to be focused upon patch processing a product. The analysis will yield a general consensus area that ford, as a company, lacks in and how the companys strategic decision making should be focused upon strengthening their worn down links. The central problem of this paper is related to the significant amount of automobile recalls by the Ford Company in the recent years which hints at its weakness in certain areas of production.The study is important due(p) to its implications in the company, customers and stakeholders equally. By studying the reasons for product recalls, the companys weak points can be analyzed, lot the company focus on areas that need to be strengthened to curtail further recall incidents. As customers, an insight regarding the problems that ford automobiles can be accompanied with gives them a heads-up regarding what to expect. The companys allegiance towards rectifying their vehicle mishaps through recalls also reflects its intention to provide the best and protect its customers from possible hazards. As stakeholders of the company, the growing number of recalls is a warning sign that reflects the companys lack of strategic focus upon offer up-to-mark vehicles to the customers. Increasing recalls also calls for resource allocation that would otherwise be utilized

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Homo Erectus and the Colonization of Asia Essay

serviceman Erectus and the Colonization of Asia - Essay ExampleThese previous(predicate) hominids experienced the interpreted environmental changes. These changes, however, probably had little negative affect on this hominid. In fact, the adaptations that permitted Homo erectus to leave Africa were most likely healthful suited to the open woodland environments subsequently encountered. These adaptations include big body size compared to earlier hominids, bipedality, linear body proportions, and a more sophisticated tool getup (Spencer, 1997).Specifically, bipedality would nurse permitted foraging in open environments (Rodman and McHenry, 1980), whereas large body size would have been useful for hold out interactions with large predators also found in these habitats (Walker, 1993). Others (Anton et al., 2002) have suggested that the maintenance of this large body size, as well as increase brain size, may have resulted from greater nutritional dependence on fleshly fat and prot ein. This may have necessitated the increase in tool sophistication for acquiring this additional fate of the diet. Finally, the long, linear body proportions found in Homo erectus might have been an advantage for heat waste matter in tropical, open grasslands, like those found in Java during this time (Ruff, 1994).Anton et al. (2002) have proposed a modelling for the initial hominid dispersal from Africa. They suggest that ecological change provided an increase in niches within grassland and woody grassland environments for terrestrial herbivores. Hominids of relatively larger brain and body size, in turn, took advantage of these animal resources and ultimately change magnitude their own reproductive success (Leonard and Robertson, 1997 Anton et al., 2002). As foraging strategy and the ecosystem structure changed, the home range of these hominids change magnitude leading to greater dispersal capability. Additionally, the dispersing herbivores not only provided a subsistence r esource but may have also served as an impetus for hominid dispersal (Anton et al., 2002).It has been shown that the Middle Pleistocene faunas of Java are fast related to the faunas of India and Burma (de Vos, 1995). Thus, based on the model of Anton et al. (2002), it can be inferred that as these species migrated southward, they began to occupy the open grasslands, densely vegetated river valleys, and upland forests of Java during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. As the hominids followed the migrating herbivores, they too would have taken advantage of the resources afforded by the landscape at this time. The Sunda Shelf then became exposed approximately 800,000 years ago, grasslands expanded, and more species began to enter Java. This increased resource base may have lead to increased reproductive success of Homo erectus. 3The Asiatic Homo erectus The relationship of Asian Homo erectus to Asian Homo sapiens has long been a source of discussion. In the simplest terms this problem takes the form of whether or not modern and recent Asian populations show morphological affinities to earlier populations attributed to Homo erectus. Again the currently unresolved question of the genetic

Monday, April 22, 2019

Job Satisfaction Perceived Efficacy Correlation Dissertation

art Satisfaction Perceived Efficacy Correlation - Dissertation ExamplePopulation and Sample The population for this use up included all 139 South Dakota public school circumscribed education administrators, including full-time, part-time, and mixed responsibility special education administrators. The information used in the study was gathered from the South Dakota subdivision of instruction 2010-2011 educational Directory. Data Collection Data nabion included the use of three separate surveys. Paul Spectors Job Satisfaction Survey was used to collect job satisfaction data. Chen, Gully, and Edens bracing General Self-Efficacy Scale was used to collect perceived self-efficacy data. Finally, a researcher-developed demographic survey was utilized to collect demographic data. The survey was posted electronically and all 139 public school special education administrators in the state of South Dakota were invited to participate via email. Names and email addresses of special educatio n administrators were gathered from the South Dakota Department of Education 2010-2011 Educational Directory. A cover letter (see Appendix G) with instructions on how to access the electronic survey was sentto all public school special education administrators in the state of South Dakota, via email. ... The invitees correct 35 useable surveys, accounting for a study response rate of 25.2 percent. Demographics Selected demographic characteristics of the study respondents atomic number 18 presented in Table 4.1. The two largest groups of respondents were aged 36-50 and 50 and over, with each category making up 40 percent of the respondents, while those aged 35 or younger represented 20 percent of the respondents. The absolute majority of respondents were female, representing 71.4 percent. It is important to note that all demographics were computed using the responses provided by respondents. Not all respondents completed all questions. master Degrees represented the highest level of education for 40 percent of respondents, which was the largest group. Those holding a Bachelors Degree accounted for 22.9 percent of the respondents. both the Education Specialist and Doctorate degree each represented 20 percent of the respondents. The ongoing documentation question allowed respondents to check all that applied so that some respondents selected multiple current certifications. The largest number of respondents, 57.6 percent, responded that their current certification was Special Education Director. Pre-K-8 Principals accounted for 11.4, while 7-12 Secondary Principals comprised 6 percent of respondents. Similarly superintendents also accounted for 6 percent of respondents. One respondent selected Superintendent and Special Education Director, one respondent chose PK-12 Principal, Superintendent, and Special Education Director as his or her current level of certification, one respondent chose PK-8 Principal and Superintendent as his or her current level of certi fication, and one respondent selected PK-8 Principal, Superintendent and

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Miranda Rights Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Miranda Rights - Essay Exampleproven censurable, be no different than any other criminals, and have the Fifth and Sixth Amendments backing them up, they should be guaranteed the rights enumerated in the Miranda warnings.Innocent until proven guilty is the phrase that is used to describe someone who has not been ground guilty of a crime, such as a suspect, who must await trails until that decision can be made. Terrorist suspects argon in the same boat as robbery suspects in that they have yet to be found to be completely guilty. Many people who are suspects often end up not be guilty of the crime for which they are being accused. As every suspect is considered to be innocent until they are proven guilty, they should be entitled to the rights that are drawn out in the Miranda warning. A suspected terrorist is as innocent as any suspected criminal until decided otherwise before a court.Terrorist suspects are just like any other criminal suspects. They have committed a crime, they have through something wrong against another person, organization, or something larger, such as the United States, and they have been caught. Someone who is suspected of terrorist application should get the same treatment and rights as a person who is suspected of robbing a store or butchering a family member. Indeed, it seems that people who have committed a heinous crime such as murder or rape are entitled to more rights than someone who is suspected of engaging in terrorist activity. In reality, there is no difference between the different types of criminals. If one criminal is entitled to the laws that are displayed in the Miranda warnings, than those that are accused of terrorist activity should get the same benefits.As was the case in Miranda versus Arizona, the U.S. Supreme hail case that birthed the Miranda rights (Sonneborn, 2003), the criminal suspects that are denied their Miranda rights are essentially denied their Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights. The Fifth Amendment protects criminals from abuse of organisation

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Econ 212G final essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Econ 212G final - Essay ExampleIndividuals effectively give their preferences by voting with their feet. (Stoddard 2009). In the exploit of moving into these communities, a population is sorted into optimum communities establish on the individuals preferences. Like any model, the Tiebout hypothesis puts forth a set of assumptions -- namely, access to complete information, scanty consumer mobility, many buyers and sellers, and consumer rationality. Tiebout also added the assumption that an optimal city size exists and that there are no spillovers of be and benefits to other communities.The hypothesis has been employ to provide insights in humans finance about the choices of communities for public goods (e.g., sanitation, education, public security) and how property values correlate with taxes and services that are provided. Zoning laws and regulations have also been explained by utilise the model. Above all, the hypothesis has had an impact on debates and decision making concer ning fiscal federalism and the proper roles of central, regional, and local governments. (ibid.).The fictional character of a bill passed in June 2009 by the New York Senate which was aimed to ease government consolidation, may be used to illustrate the last point (See Confessore, 2009 June). The law simplifies the complex array of laws specifying how government officials can choose to separate or merge towns, villages and the hundreds of special districts that provide water, sewage treatment and other services throughout the state.The legislative act does not propose consolidation as such but only creates a simple, uniform process by which voters and officials can decide on and execute consolidation, requiring only that 10 percent of registered voters to propose it. It give allow county governments to abolish local government units by a majority. On the pro side, the argument is that as well many layers of government have burdened residents with the highest taxes in the country, driving out

The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao - Essay Exampleois Macomber. This musical composition helps to provide an insight into how the author has made delectation of the feeling of absence very beautifully in the story as he talks about how the lives of hoi polloi in the shadow of dictatorship and lively in exile were full of loss and has to a fault pointed out absence in the form of immigrants. In the middle of Oscars pathetic existence, Yunior tells the story of how terrifying it was to live under the dictatorship for Oscars make and grandparents. They underwent blood soaked years of the Trujillo dictatorship full of paranoia, torture, secret police, murder and affright. These are the words that disembowel life in a small, tropical dictatorship run by a psychopath.Not coincidentally, they also describe the legacy of the Twentieth Century.The book helps in describing the dark path that the immigrant, Oscar, was made to tread upon and the conglomerate events that he went through during the course of his lifetime. The idea of absence has been provided in a very descriptive elbow room as the author has tried to point out instances with respect to the emotion. The first taste of absence maybe felt by the readers by the mention of the immigrant family that Oscar was from. Immigrants are people who have been forced to flee their inhabitancy countries and live elsewhere because of social or moral issues prevailing within society.In actuality, they are not able to fit well within other societies because of problems of acceptance faced by other people around them. Thus, they feel lonely and are one of the most key aspects of describing absence and loneliness. Furthermore, Diaz has made use of the backdrop of dictatorship and exile under the purview of which the protagonists of the story were living. The author describes the absence of friendship and prevalence of loneliness in Waos life In the old days when his so-called friends would hurt him or drag his trus t through the mud he always crawled voluntarily back into the abuse, hour of fear and

Friday, April 19, 2019

Motivation and Performance Factors for Bombay Palace Essay

Motivation and Performance Factors for Bombay Palace - Essay Exampleey feel with appraisal at work.questionaires were employ so as to get feedback of the employees and this made the study less cumbersome for the researcher. This is important to note that was conducted in a span of month month so as to guarantee that each and every cater was interviewed.Motivation of employee is one key issue that is facing every organization. It is the responsibility of every leader in an organisation to ensure employees are traveld and also create a very conducive surroundings for them in the workplace (Koontz 1993). Though an employee may be capable to perform his/her job description without motivation every human being needs to feel a little bit of appreciation as this will spur inner urge to work well in an organisation. It is this role of a leader that he has to ensure that his workforce is motivated and if not he should identify a strategy on how to make them moretivated as this will en able him achieve his organisational goals(Marginson 1986). Motivation cannot be understated as it is constantly a key ingredient to help an organisation in achieving its goals. Issuinig of instructions that are well and clealy hail-fellow (Marginson 1986). A manager first has to understand he has the right team and after it is when he should ensure that the team is motivated so as to keep the focus on objective goals.The role to motivate employees depends on very different dimesions and they cannot be for one department like the human resource merely the whole organisation.Itis thus important to understand all humans have different needs and may be motivated in different ways but one of the most important labor movement is to ensure it is done (Alous 2002). Strong needs in directing and satisfying latent needs in employees harness them in a manner that is functional for the organization.For motivation to be successfully implemented the factors that depart motivation should be i dentified and analysed properly.The goal here is to identify the causes of motivation and not the

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Accounting for Managerial Decision Making Research Paper

Accounting for Managerial Decision devising - Research Paper ExampleTraditionally, there are two things which are calculated while playacting the cost volume profit analysis. These are calculating the parcel margin and contribution margin ratio. (Navaro, 2005) division Margin = Sales Variable costsContribution Margin Ratio = Contribution / SalesThe above calculations whence focus on the overall fixed and variable costs of the firm while at the same time providing insight into how the costs vary with the output. However, when this technique was developed, firms were more than labor intensifier and had diametrical manufacturing costs break up. The new firms have more constant costs which normally do not wary because most of the modern organizations are now capital intensive organizations with fixed labor costs. For example, a supervisor whitethorn be paid the same wages regardless of the fact that whether the machine working at its full capacity or not. As such many argue th at the maximization of the contribution margin may no longer be relevant for the modern organizations. (Luther, and ODonovan., 1998)... Further, since the capital intensive firms have higher fixed cost ratio in their total cost structure therefore capital intensive firms may not be able to clearly identity their breakeven point ground on the CVP analysis as this may be misleading. In a capital intensive firm, more costs goes to the management and operations of the capital intensive equipment with little costs going towards the labor and other overheads. The excessive contribution by the manufacturing overheads therefore makes it irrelevant for the capital intensive firms to actually use the CVP analysis. 2) The handed-down theory on corporate finance and account suggests that the major task of the managers is to ensure that their actions result into the genesis of value for the shareholders. Thus the common objective of the firm or the business has been focused upon the profit maximization and the maximization of the shareholders value. Any business activity which does not result into the above two therefore may not be considered as the real objectives of the firm. The traditional accounting therefore seems to portray only the above basic aims of the firm i.e. capturing how value and profitability can be maximized and based on these principles different accounting estimates and procedures are made. The latest trends however suggest that the firms only objective cannot be restrict to just the maximization of the profits or the shareholders value. Now firms also being viewed as larger vocalisation of the society with different other objectives too including sustainability of the environment as well as corporate affectionate responsibility.( Islam, and Dellaportas,

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Conflict Management Plan Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Conflict Management Plan - Research Paper typefaceFirstly, they should begin with Davids accusations against jam, which have stated that James is create confusion in the production line, which is causing the earlier to miss quality tabs. It is lively to solve this through collaboration that is a win-win strategy for all in all the parties (Dontigney, 2014). The problem in question that is quality checks requires an all-inclusive approach. If situation is resolved as per Davids accusation, James will be of the view that the solution favours one side. Similarly, if the manager and the superintendent dismiss Davids allegations, hence he will miss more quality checks.Based on the above, the two senior officers should check if there is anything, which James does which results in David missing quality checks. If there is, then James should desist from doing it, if there is not, then David missing quality checks was a culmination of his own inefficiency, which he had heaped upon Jam es. Subsequently David should be reprimanded for levelling rancid allegations against a co-worker. The two senior officers, the manager and superintendent, should focus on forging cooperation between the two employees, which is vital for ensuring that the industry churns out products that meet set quality regulations (Dontigney, 2014). Cooperation between the two employees will result in an effective production

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

The Adoption of Electrically Powered Vehicles Essay Example for Free

The Adoption of Electrically Powered Vehicles EssayThe non-internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles consists of mark electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), single-fuel all electric vehicles (EV), and fuel cell vehicles (FCV). Earlier attempts at non-ICE vehicles were set about with many challenges resulting in abandonment of interrogation and development. General Motors (GM) dis slide byd the EV1 electric vehicle after place about $1 billion in the development. The Toyota RAV 4-EV, which was popular among environmentalist, was discontinued based on sales not high enough to justify production termss.The attention that non-ICE vehicles are receiving is driven by environmental concerns, scarceness of fossil fuel, high gasoline prices and another(prenominal)s. The environmental concerns stems from the pollution from carbon dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels. In 2009, the joined States used 19. 6% of the world primary aptitude con sumption and 17. 7% of world carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption ranking first and second respectively. There is a correlation between the carbon dioxide constriction and the earths surface temperature.There is a general increase in global temperature with increase atmospheric carbon dioxide. The high initial cost of the non-ICE vehicles as compared to ICE versions is also an issue. The cost derived function is principal(prenominal)ly due to the technology, with onslaught being a major cost driver. For example, in 2009 the cost of Toyota Camry HEV was $26,160 whiles the cost of a comparable ICE version was $20,445. The price of gasoline in the U. S. is relatively cheap, thus poignant the word meaning of the non-ICE vehicles.In 2008, the average retail price of gasoline in the U. S. was $3. 25 per gallon, with 14% as tax component. In the same year, the average price of gasoline in the UK, Germany, and France were $7. 53, $7. 72, and $7. 53 with tax components of 1 61%, clxx%, and 154% respectively. The movement from ICE powered vehicles to the non-ICE powered vehicles was due to signs of oil shortages and air quality concerns. The government responded with the uncase Air Act in 1970 requiring cars to come catalytic converters to reduce pollutants.Other government intervention placing childbed on vehicle emission standards forced the industry to launch research and development rolls in battery powered electric vehicles. There are four major non- ICE design concepts, which are as follows ? ? ? ? HEV, the use of on maturate electricity and gasoline to move the vehicle PHEV, the use of on board electricity and gasoline to move the vehicle and also ability to plug into an immaterial power way out to re devote the battery. EV, the use of only electricity to move the vehicle and also ability to plug into an external power outlet to recharge the battery.FCV, the use stacks of electrodes and electrolytes that generates electricity to move vehi cle Page 1 of 2 The non-ICE vehicle market has gone through rough times in shaping the current, HEV, PHEV, EV, and FCVs. The HEV, PHEV, and EV are antithetical products but share some commonality by way of infrastructural needs. However, FCVs appear to have a lower rate for adoption due to cost involved in providing the necessary infrastructure. The crude cost of providing installed fuel station for the FCV is $50,000.The comparable cost for the electric plug-in station is $3,000 to $6,000. Automobile companies need to continue investing in research and development in the non-ICE vehicles. It is their interest to improve fuel efficiency wellhead above the standards set by government imposed Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. A particular attention to improving the range of the vehicle is required. The range of the vehicle is the distance of travel per charge and or full tank of gas. The miles per gallon (MPG) is another attribute which is interrelated to the range.T he sales figures provided shows that in November 2009, Toyota Prius had 49. 7% of the total 19,334 HEVs sold in the US. Toyota Prius also happen to be the HEV with the highest miles per gallon (MPG) rating at 50. This distinctly indicates that the mileage rating is an important attribute of the HEV. Consider reducing the cost premium on the vehicles and articulating the long savings in non-ICE vehicle ownership. The survey response regarding the likelihood of buying a PHEV with fuel savings of 75% shows a steep decline in chances of buying with increasing cost premium.Develop vehicle for specific driving need by providing different cost options, guided by customer section by driving mission. The high cost of the initial purchase will be addressed by focusing on providing options due to driving needs of the customer. This stinker be addressed by having different range points which will typically imply reducing the battery packs in the vehicle. Therefore, the price per vehicle can be reduced per specific need. The FCV appears to have a very low possibility of success, hence its research and investment funds will be reallocated.Partner with government, competitors, and other stakeholders to develop the infrastructure to support main stream adoption. The major cost driver to the non-ICE vehicles is the battery. Therefore by scaling down the cost by driving needs, a prospect with a shorter commute distance can opt for a slight costly version of a model with just the right mix. With 2. 28 vehicles per household in the US, it anticipate that household will consider having a non-ICE vehicle in the mix for shorter commute and errands.To discontinue non-promising project will free up human resource and money to be used to improve other investments. The freed up resource will support an increase in marketing related plan and implementation. together with other government and other stakeholders, incentives will be sought to encourage non-ICE adoption by citing envi ronmental challenges to the country in specific and the earth in general. These strategies overall will improve early the adoption of Electrically Powered Vehicles in the U. S.

Monday, April 15, 2019

The author’s decidedly negative Essay Example for Free

The authors decidedly oppose EssayRobert Louis Stevensons The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide touches on many important themes, including identity and the character of reputation within society. On top of those themes, the author also uses his work to speak to an idea of plateful within the novel. Though this work does not include a typical literary representation of base as a developmental ground for young, aspiring successes, he does illustrate how blank space flush toilet be a senior highly unspoilt and dangerous social function in all at the same time. Just as Jekyll and Hyde represent a personal dichotomy, abode is shown as a set that sewer be multi-faceted.Because of the national nature of the relationships developed between a person and his or her office, that person can be manipulated by the safety of fellowship. magic spell it might seem like a puzzle to barricade singles self from the rest of the world, nursing bag can actually be the sing le force stripping individuals of their tycoon to function. In this particular work, home is a confide where madness persists and it is essentially ground zero for all that is wrong with Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In this way, the author is accepting some of the guesss on the role of home, asserting that even in a sea of pluss, home can play a forbid role, as well.In this confine, home is most certainly a place of comfort and violence. The author challenges the assertion that home could be a place where people go just to get their own measure of comfort. While it is true that Dr. Jekyll retreats to his home to get away from much of the scrutiny surrounding him, the author is quick to point out(a) that this recognise runs away from Jekyll in a big way. During one portion of the book, suspicions are at an all-time high and people continue to visit Jekyll to figure out his situation.Both the police and concerned citizens have do their way into his home, and in the early part of the book, it is not a place of comfort. In this way, it can be said that the traditional idea of home is lost for the doctor during those moments. He has police officers tone ending through his personal effects and turning his home upside down. He has individuals peering through his windows, providing him with little privacy or comfort of any kind. During this portion of the book, the traditional idea of home is absolutely smashed.Instead of being a refuge, it is a fish bowl where immense and intense pressure is put on the doctor everyplace a period of months. The author does use this opportunity to show the importance of a traditional safe haven, though. As Jekyll is essentially ambushed in his home, he begins to long for the comfort and the privacy traditionally expected in that kind of setting. When Jekyll stops receiving visitors, he is reaching out for the comfort of his home. He grows very tired of invariably being harassed for various reasons, even if those reasons are l egitimate.He locks the doors and makes home his refuge. He analyses comfort in his work in the lab, but home is also a place of violence. He lives through a kind of unchangeable madness while in his home, constantly working on concoctions and hiding from the true statement about who he is. This violence is finally culminated in his suicide, which not surprisingly happens right in the midway of his comfort zone. This use of violence within the home by the author is meant to show that the comfort provided by home is a slipper slope. As the traditional views hold, the ideal of home is one that is delicate.In one moment, home can provide a place for a person to get away from criticisms and attention. In another moment, it can be a place where madness and violence consumer a persons life. Additionally, the author presents a picture of home as the breeding ground for many of the crazed acts of Mr. Hyde. In short, every minute that Jekyll spends in his home or lab is just another moment where the reviewer anticipates some painful event. Through creative sequencing and skilled foreshadowing, the author makes it very clear that the home is an adverse place for Dr. Jekyll.Though he does use it as a refuge, the author makes it seem as if he is solo picking the time of his next crazed act. The traditional views hold that home is a place where one develops his or her skills to move forward in the future. Most would say that this is a positive unfavorable judgment of what home is all about. That is not the picture of home that Stevenson paints, though. He does use the ideas of preparation and planning, but it is ever so for something negative. Much like Dr. Jekyll experiments with various things in his lab, home is a place where thither is decisive scheming.In this way, it is much more planning than it is preparation. on that point is no real personal growth taking place for the doctor he is only hiding from his identity and attempting to conceal his acts. The auth ors decidedly negative view on the role of home in terms of preparation is an interesting point. Stevenson challenges the idea that a person can receive some sort of nurturing from home that would make he or she a better person overall. Instead, he paints home as something of an independent force. For people who have the innate qualification to develop and grow, home can be a good place to do that.It does provide the case of repetitive environment where individuals can focus on continued good habits. The author, at least in this work, offers the judgment that home in itself is not enough to develop those who would otherwise not get development. Additionally, he paints this repetition as a bad thing in the case of Dr. Jekyll. The doctor gets into a terrible cycle where he continues to self destruct, time and again. Because home is a place where individuals are protected and where there is very little to balance out such acts, it creates an environment where people can fall into tra ps. floor is not nearly corrective enough in this story. With this view, Stevenson may be offering an argument that home is only a positive when the people inside the home are providing the correct amount of support. Because it can be so many things and go so many ways, home itself is truly not to blame. It is only a framework from which people are expected to work. The real blame must go on the individuals who use the home and on the people who should be providing the customary support that goes on with being at home. For Dr. Jekyll, home is his refuge, and it acts as a place that he cannot wait to return to.As the reader intelligibly sees in this book, the first thing that Dr. Jekyll always does after one of Mr. Hydes acts is that he comes tolerate home. There are dangerous out on the streets and he could potentially get himself into trouble, but when the doctor comes back home, he has the ability to cover things up, clean behind his tracks, and turn his life into something nor mal yet again. While many things change for Jekyll over the course of the book, including his professional reputation, his personal relationships, and his ability to manage his personalities, home is something that mud constant.It is a strong place for him to come and truly dedicate his time to his craft. Despite this somewhat positive view of what home is supposed to mean, the book indicates that Jekyll feels incredibly trapped by this situation. He is actually laboured to feel like a stranger within his own home, and he comes to resent it after a short while. For the longest time, Jekyll looks forward to coming home because it provides him with safety after some of the acts of Mr. Hyde. This changes as the book moves along, though. No longer is there real excitement about coming home.Instead, he comes because that is the only place that he can go. Home becomes a restrictive force, and all that is positive about it is thrown out of the window. This is the authors critique on the place of home. In one instance, it can be a place that people need, and it can provide the framework for success. It does not take much for home to take on a negative connotation, though. Just as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde can be switched on and off in a split second, a positive view of home and a negative one can come about very quickly.The traditional view of home as a dichotomy offers the opinion that different pictures of home can be experienced by different people. For some people, home is a good thing, while it is resented by other people. Stevenson complicates this by adding an element of personal indecision on the role of home. Dr. Jekyll experiences all of these emotions within himself. His entire life is dedicated to his work in the lab and the things he has going on at home. That is truly a place of great joy and utter accomplishment for him. Later, it all told switches for him and becomes a place of death, quite literally.Not only does he kill himself right in the pump of the floor at his home, but he also sees his professional life die right in that home. People are constantly peering in, wanting to take a look at the strange and confused Dr. Jekyll. His reputation dies and any respect that he worked so hard for in that lab goes away along with it. It is no coincidence that the author chooses the doctors home as the place where all of this would take place. This speaks loudly about the importance of home to a persons development. Whether positive or negative, home does play a substantial role in shaping what a person will become.In the case of Dr. Jekyll, home is a roller coaster and home has seen the full range of experiences that he has gone through. Home, in the traditional sense, is a mostly positive place with some negative possibilities. Most authors take the view that home provides something for a person until a time comes when home is a limiting force. In this work, home is something a little bit different. Both a refuge and a place of imp risonment for Dr. Jekyll, home goes through quite a transition as the work goes along. In the end, home is a place of horrible tragedy and death, and it serves as the fitting setting of a mans twisted, double life.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Weber in University Essay Example for Free

weber in University EssayMax Webers (1958) one aspect of analyzing society involves rationalization in capitalism ( p. 13). His idea is that pursuit of bullion is not just for the sake of earning but must also be rationalizedin a elan that is calculating or earning more profit (Weber, 1958). Highlight of this is the Lutherian input that capitalism gives you a special barter. fulfillment of that duty is the highest form of performing moral activity as this is moral obligation (spirit of capitalism) (Weber, 1958).Universities never fly capitalism. It has even become the means for the reproduction of capitalism. University propagates the idea that a man needs to study to be able to work where the higher education level he attains, the greater is his opportunity to earn more. It is a equal with Webers idea on task specializationa student entering the university must choose his specialization or degree program. With this, universities earn profit because more students want to get to college.The briny idea creation that when you get to graduate from the university with a degree, you argon sure to land on a good job with good pay. But earning money is not the highlight on getting a degree. Instead, it is inculcated as a moral obligation to the society which is parallel to Webers spirit of capitalism. A better member of society is someone who works hard achieving his tasks than someone who does not strive for success. look at how university works, specific duties are performed by specific groups.Professors teach, administrative manages the university and other groups for other significant tasks like counseling and housing for students who serves as the customers though not purchasing market goods but intellect and skills. These duties at a time fulfilled rationalize the profit earned by universities. Not only is mere fulfillment of duty considered a moral activity but as education is uplifted and seen as significant, so are the professors who mold the fu ture workforce of the world. It is indeed the highest form of moral activity literally and figuratively.These duties/jobs found in the universities comprise the assiduityimportant concept for Weber and Marx. While Marx argues that there is no free labor since people have to sell their labor military group to capitalist, Weber argues that selling this is still wage-flexible and calculable (1920, p. 21). heavy examples are the janitors and the professors. Both sell their labor power to owners of university. But since both has different labor power to offer (one on manual labor, other is teaching), there would be wage-differences.Thus, it shows how university truly has incorporated calculation with it being a business. As shown, universities, though seen as having noble purpose of educating, are still under the rationalistic capitalism that calculates, profit-oriented and involve special tasks. They bring to the society two valuable productsthe profit they earn in terms of money and the students who in turn earns money and profit for themselves after college. This is how universities pattern with Webers idea.ReferenceWeber, M. (1958). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New York Scribner.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

The Effect of Deregulation Policies Essay Example for Free

The Effect of deregulating Policies Essay1.1 Background of the teachOrganization, potentiometers or establishment, just like the governments be governed by rules and rulers, in the alike(p) way every economy set out goals, which it achieves, with various means. Vibratory and fiscal policies argon the stimulant to any nation sparing development, especi whollyy with regards to Nigeria.However, in this study, the attention of this is mainly on the fix of deregulating on fixs profitability in Nigeria. The discussion on the deregulating can be efficaciously carried out without understanding what pecuniary insurance indemnity is every(prenominal) about. In this content, fiscal policy could be defined as a policy which deals with discretionary ascendence of money supply by the monetary governance in order to achieve stated stinting goal of society. The performance of the Nigeria economy has on the exacerbate for a long time now. However the interchange coin bank has been issuing series of policies through and through which she tries to stabilise set in the country. The primeval bank which came into operation since 1959, has introduced monetary measures for the achievement of the national economicalal objectives, which identify from the maintenance of a health balance of payment control or moderation of inflation through the acceleration of the peace of the economic development to the stabilization of the exchange ramble of naira with unknown currencies.Deregulation could be defined as the removal of the unnecessary control which tends to inhabit or prevent the effective and effective programme of economic and business activities. The regulators and deregulation in the banking sector/ constancy cause favored roughly banks while rough some opposite(a) banks could not stand the weir of constant changes in the monetary and banking policies. However, deregulation goes with its be which includes the removal of inhibiting controls o n economic activities, encouragement on investment and assurance of efficient all(prenominal)ocation of resources. all over the years, Nigeria economic has witnessed changes in its economic policies. These changes view as been carried out by the government and the monetary, yield and development these changes in policies have taken different sectors of the economy, use uply including the banking industry. The fiscal sector and the banking industry in particular, due(p) to its overcritical position and functions in the economy, have been the major focus of economic reforms. Reforms in the banking industry have taken the form of regulation and presently deregulation prior to 1952 banking industry was devoid of government interference this boundary regarded by financial operation and analysis as the era of free banking. It was characterized by free foundation and exit with minimum of regulated of activities of trading operations.However, the laissez fair attitude contribution to early bank failure experienced in the industry between the activation of banks given its role as financial intermediaries (cl siteing economic system to investments) in order to build a second and viable financial system. Also, regulation is used to correct distortions in the pricing mechanism of market forces. The country of the activity of the Nigerian banking industry stated with the enactment of the banking ordering of 1952, which was followed by the central bank act of 1958, the exchange control act of 1962 and the banking act of 1969, the aims of regulation and economic efficiency and effective allocation of resources sometimes, the aims are not fully realized and experience has shown, especially in developing countries, that exclusive control by the stagnation. This is what happened in Nigeria in the early 2008 when the country was facing economic crisis of general rise in price of goods and servicings, unemployment, external debt problem, fall in total output and divi ding revenue caused by fall in oil price.In other to overcome these economic crisis the country in 2007 to 2009, adopted a form of structural adjustment program (sap) with the objective of sustaining economic growth and development, price stableness, exchange rate stability, prevention of unemployment and appreciable if not level of employment. These objectives were to be achieved through a set price system and deregulation of economy. Deregulation is regarded as a major policy or schema for revitalizing the economy. This is based on the fact that determination which embraces the removal of inhabiting controls on business and economic activities, impart encourage ambition, increase the level of investment and efficient allocation of resources. The financial sector and the banking industry in particular regarded as the oil that keeps the wheels of economy moving, has continued to experiences the force of deregulation in different areas of it operations.The deregulation of the ind ustry started in 1987, with the liberalization of interest rate. The reform exercise has alter other areas of banking activities, against this background. The study will focus on the deregulation on the banking industry, knead of deregulation, dimensions of deregulation, evaluation of reforms and effects on the banking industry. In the process of analysis, rebootence will be on the zenith brink plc and Diamond Bank plc.1.2 statement of the problem The banking industry, due to its intricate nature has been encountering problems, such as capital inadequacies, excessive liquidity, bank distress and subsequent legibility in order to minimize and eradicate most of these shortcomings there have been constant manipulations of strategies with the aim of change the base of the banking industry. To overcome the above mentioned problems, then these questions will be considered- i. How has regulation and subsequent deregulation affected the performance of the banking industry? ii. Have t he banks performed better in term of profitability maximization of customers welfare and shareholders wealth as well as affected the economy positively under deregulation. iii. Should deregulation be supplemented with regulation in order monetary administration to be able to achieve their aim and objective?In other to achieve the government objectives, monetary policies and other banking regulations must be implement. The banking industry which is a major participant in the implementation of government regulation and deregulation faces some problems in its performance which for their study is measured in terms of profitability. This research therefore is to evaluate the impact of deregulation policies on profitability of banks in Nigeria. 1.3 Purpose of the study.The writers want to ascertain the effect of deregulation on the performance of banks, particularly on their profitability. The study will deal at length with the various Operational character of the banking activities wh ich deregulation has affected. The study is aimed at i. Investigating the need for changes in banking deregulation policies. ii. Investigating the prototype of policies, that has been implemented in spite of appearance the period of study (1999-2009). iii. Determine the instruments of banking deregulations that should be used to stop up profitability and growth in the banking industry.To enhance the study, zenith bank plc and diamond bank plc will be used as reference banks. 1.4 Statement of hypothesis Ho Deregulation has no direct effect on banks profitability H1 Deregulation has direct effect on banks profitability.1.5 The scope of the study.The study covers the period of deregulation in the country but with in- depth study of what happen in the banking industry between 1999-2009. The activities of the supervisory and regulating authorities, during their period will withal be examined, As well as how deregulation of the industry has affected profitability of the banks. The me rcenary banks selected for study are zenith bank plc and diamond bank plc. The choice of this bank is necessary since they have passed through all the area of banking policies in the country.1.6 The significance of the study.Banks, be they commercial, deregulation or mortgage in every economy, ensure that profit is made through their credit facilities, as a result of the prevailing regulations, instituted by the restrictive authorities. This work will go a long way by helping the banks know the take into account time to give loans.Also, it is the belief of the research to the already existing lit on the impact of deregulation policy on the profitability of the banks in Nigeria. Moreover, this work will have positive influence on educational studies and will aid other researches1.7 Definition of termsi. Deregulation is the removal or decrease of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces. In other word is the reduction or settlement of governme nt top executive in a particular industry usually enacted to create more competition within the industry? ii. Policy a policy is typically described as a hash out plan of action to guide the decision and achieve rational outcome. iii. Profitability profit generally is the devising of gain in business activity for the benefit of the owners of the business. iv. Banks a bank is a financial intermediator that accepts lay and channels. Banks are a lineamental component of a financial system and are excessively active player in an economic.v. Economy Economies consist of the economic system of a country or other area, the labour capital and land resources, and the economic ingredient. vi. Rationale the term rationale may refer to as the explanations on the basis or fundamental reasons for something. A justification or rationalization. vii. Interest rate an interest rate is the price a borrower paid for the use of money they borrow from the lender, for instance a small company mig ht borrow capital from bank. viii. Structural adjustment program is an economic policy which countries must follow in other to qualify for new World Bank and international monetary fundCHAPTER TWOLiterature Review2.1 IntroductionOver the years many outstanding scholars have conducted extensive studies on deregulation policies and financial system. In this chapter the researcher discusses briefly some of existing literature on deregulation policies and financial system. This chapter covers the overview of the Nigeria financial system, the Nigeria Banking system, an overview of commercial banking in Nigeria, problem of deregulation policies and lot more.2.2Overview of the Nigeria financial system.The Nigeria financial system could be seen or defined as a set of rules, regulations, financial arrangements, inductions, agent and other mechanism whereby they relate to each other within the financial sector and the rest of other sectors of the economy.Furthermore, financial system could b e defined as a conglomerate of various institutions, market, instruments and operations interact within any economy to provide financial services (CBN 98/06 pi). These services provided may include resource mobilization and allocation, financial intermediate trade among others.In Nigeria, the financial system has undergone rare changes in terms of ownership structure, the instruments employed, the anatomy of institution realised, the economic environment and the restrictive framework within which the system operates the Nigerian financial system is made up of regulatory/supervisory authorities as well as banks and non-bank financial institutions. The federal ministry of finance(FMF), central bank of Nigeria (CBN), Nigeria deposit insurance co-operation (SEC), national insurance commission (NIC), federal mortgage bank of Nigeria (FMB.N) and the national board for community of interests banks (NBCB) are the regulatory and supervisory authorities, in Nigeria through the CBN report to the presidency through the federal ministry of finance in all monetary matter it has effectively assumed the leadership of all banking institutions in the financial system. To this effect, the CBN has the responsibility for the control and supervision of all commercial, merchant and community banks, people banks finance house, development banks and all discount house and other (ibid ppi-2)In recent times, the Nigeria financial system has witnessed some changes. Among these changes were financial malpractices in banks parliamentary law no.8 of 1994. The decree was published to facilitate the prosecution of those who contribute to the failure of banks and to recover the debits used to the failed banks.Also, the inauguration of the financial services regulatory coordinating committee (FSRCC) by the central bank of Nigeria in 1994 to coordinate and standardize the regulatory policies of all financial institutions in the system. This committee is to ensure some level of co-operation among the regulatory agencies.However, in 1995 above, three (3) decrees were published to further regulate the financial system. These were the money laundering decree, the Nigeria instrument promotion commission decree and the remote exchange (monitoring and miscellaneous provision) i.e Decree no.3, no16, no17 independently.The aim of decree no.3 is to prevent drug money and other illicitly required asset from entering into the financial system, so that the damaging effect of such monetary shooter is forestalled. This decree stipulated limited total of cash dispositions or payment to be made or judge in our banks to N500, 000 (five hundred thousand Naira) for an individual and N 2,000,000 (two gazillion Naira) for a corporate entity, unlike the institution before this decree when one was forced to pay in or withdraw any amount of cash from the bank.The Nigerian investment promotion commission is challenged with the responsibility of encouraging. Promoting and co-coordinatin g investment activities in Nigeria. The commission is in like manner empowered to institute and support the measures that would enhance the investment conditions for both Nigeria citizens and foreign investors too.On the other hand, the foreign exchange decree no.17 answers the CBN with the approval of the finance minister to issue guideline to regulate the producers for transaction in the ministry to market as well as other matter, which may enhance the effective operations of the market. The decree provides for any convertible foreign currency to be traded in the foreign exchange market.In 1994, the central bank of Nigeria CBN decree no25 both of 1991 was amended. This includes the withdrawal of autonomy of the CBN with its supervision placed under the federal ministry of finance. The power of the CBN over the financial system was enhanced by this decree.This decree, also fixed the minimum capital unavoidableness of both commercial and merchant banks at a uniform level of N 500 m.(five hundred trillion naira) instead of the former N50m (Fifty million Naira) and N 40m (forty million naira) for commercial and merchant banks respectively.In addition, the Nigerian deposit insurance corporation (NDIC) decree no 22 of 1988 was amended to give more power to the corporation to deal with insured banks and act independently of CBN on matters affecting banks.2.3 The Nigeria banking systemMany countries of the world have for a long time now recognized the importance of banking services in the promotion of economic growth. In fact, to have a firm control of the economy, the entire financial system must be under control. In this order, a body, an entity or an agency must be in charge.In Nigeria, the central bank of Nigeria-CBN is the main organization that supervises the operation of the financial system the CBN act of 1958 commenced its operations on beginning(a) July, 1959 with the sole aim of making the monetary policies of the country. The CBN is the apex bank, th e lender of last resort, bankers bank, and it is responsible for the regulation of the entire banking operations.All these functions and more are being performed with directives from the presidency through the federal ministry of finance and in collaboration with Nigerian deposit insurance corporation (NDIC). One of the principle objectives of the CBN is to promote monetary stability and soundness of the financial system.To actualize this, CBN conducts regular supervision and examination of banks as a means of maintaining watch on banking operation to ensure compliance to decree spelt out by the industry authorities (CBN 2007). On the hierarchy of monetary management, the apex bank (CBN) comes first, then followed by other banks. These banks include commercial banks, merchant banks, development banks, peoples bank and community banks, amongst others.The peoples banks, has continue to increase in number from the date of establishment and as at 1996, the number of branches has come u p to 175. The micro-finance bank is a independent or a group of communities. All the community banks are under the regulatory supervisory control of started in December 1990. As at 1996, the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) had given provisional license to 1366 community banks.The above is an x-ray of the banking industry in the country. An overview of commercial banking in the country is therefore relevant for a thorough understanding of the research.2.4 An overview of commercial Banking In Nigeria A commercial bank could be defined check to section 41, subsection (1) Of the Nigerian banking decree of 1964, and paragraph (a) as any person who transacts banking business in Nigeria and whose business includes the acceptance of deposits, withdraws able by cheque The possession of a valid license duly granted by the commission of companies, duly incorporated in Nigeria is also a prerequisite for the transaction of banking business. commercialised banks are dual intermediaries in the dom estic and international spheres. At the domestic level, the banks mobilize fund from the surplus sector or unity of the economy and at the international level, they provide the channel through which foreign exchange is transferred to or received from other countries of the world in the settlement of international transactions.Commercial banks are different from other banks because of the nature of services they render to their customers, which commercial banks started operation in 1982 and performed some functions. These Functions include acceptance of deposits, granting of loans and advances, the operation of payment and settlement mechanism. Merchant bank on their own are wholesale banks that take deposit and carter for need of corporate and institutional customers. Their main role is to provide a medium for long term financing by engaging in a activities such as equipment, leasing, loaning, syndication, debt factoring project financing.The first merchant bank in Nigeria is the Ni geria acceptance limited (NAL). This bank started operates in 1960. However, by December, 1996, there were about 51 merchant banks, with about 147 branches nationwide, while their total asset amounted to 111,206.9million compared with 91,803 million in 1995 (CBN OPP.5).On the other hand, the development bank in the country including the Nigeria Industrial Development Bank (NDIB) was established in 1964 to provide credit and other facilities to industries, especially to medium and large scale enterprises. The Nigeria bank for commerce and industry (NBCI) come into existence as a result of the promulgation of decree 22 of 1973, with the aim of developing indigenous enterprises particularly, the small and medium scale once.The Nigeria agriculture and commercial bank was established in 1973 mainly to financed agricultural development project and allied industries, Decree No22 of 1990 establish the peoples bank. The bank was ear-marked by the federal government in 1988 budget with an ini tial allocation of N 30m, through with legal statute in 1990. The bank was established to meet the credit needs of small borrowers who cannot come across the stringent collateral requirement being demanded by other banks. Other banks cannot do. These are the acceptance of saving account, current account and fixed deposit account from individuals, retail and corporate customers and the payment and collection of cheques. The service which commercial banks and other banks perform includes discounting of bills, undertaking of executorships and trustee services, safe custody of securities and other valuables.Commercial banks in the country have continued to dominate banking sector accounting for 82.6% and 90.4% of the banking industries total asset and deposit liabilities, respectively in 1996. The base of the structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1987 brought about the establishment of many banks in the country and made banking business a lucrative nature. As at 1996, there were ab out 64 commercial banks in Nigeria with 2,402 branches as against 30 banks with 2397 in 1986. (CBN OPCIT P, E).The reason for this rapid growth is due to the introduction of SAP which led to the gradual deregulation of the economy.The increased number of banks notwithstanding, a significant proportion of the liabilities and assets of all commercial banks in Nigeria are still in the hand of 3 big banks (first bank, union bank, zenith bank and).since the event of global meltdown, they are the only banks in Nigeria capable to declared dividend. The control of the banking sector is in their hands and the rate at which they feel the impact of the monetary policies, bank regulation and deregulation would range from those of the smaller banks and the new generation banks.2.5Monetary Policies in NigeriaMonetary policies could be seen as one of the policy tools in stock(predicate) to the managers of the economy. It involves the variation in credit conditions- cost availability, impact with a view to achieving the economic objectives such as price stability that is prevention of inflation or deflection (as the case may be), economic growth and development, balance of payments equilibrium, high level of employment and equitable distribution of income.In other words, monetary policy could be defined as the regulation of the supply of money and bank credit for the promotion of selected economic objectives. According to Hanson (2007) The purpose of monetary policy is to influence the supply of money in order to hold out or contract the volume of the purchasing power in the volume of the purchasing power in the country. He went further to say that an increase in the volume of purchasing power is expected to jar demand and investment, increase output and reduce unemployment.The policies used by each country are wide-ranging in accordance with some economic laws, aimed at steering the economy towards a desired direction. However, these and other government directives or pro nouncement are among the banking and deregulation policies.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Student Essay Example for Free

Student try fine machination is one of some ways of communication. fine artifice is used to express feelings or to deliver a message to a viewer. It is also used to leave a record of things that happened during the time the artwork was created. past artwork usually talks about religious practices, spiritual beliefs or even their dependence on nature for survival whereas twenty-first century passage artwork are usually personal opinions on something such as politics, action make by someone or new law.It also contains the operatives feeling of the time the artwork was created. E rattling highway artists of the 21st century has different styles whereas past artists used similar (close to same) styles. Creative Purpose. Fig. 1, Elderly Woman, Street Art London, 2011 Fig. 1, Elderly Woman, Street Art London, 2011 The ancient artworks, in this case, ancient Egyptian art, were used to keep record of achievements, spiritual beliefs and spiritual practices. near of the spirit ual practices were practices of mummifying dead bodies, believing that the soul from the dead body will go to either nirvana or hell.Ancient Egyptians believed in afterlife quite heavily. Most of the ancient Egyptian kings (Pharaohs) were mummified due to this belief. Furtherto a greater extent, many of the ancient Egyptian artworks encounter divinitys in them. There are Gods for certain things such as God of the Sun and God of Death. However, the 21st century thoroughfare art is more of expressing the artists feelings and commenting on certain things such as politics. For example, there is a famous street artist who lives in Paris, France, who has a nickname called C215 (real name is Christian Guemy).His artworks usually have volume involved in them. However, his artworks are not just about normal people nevertheless people like beggars, elderly people, refugees and street kids because he is obsessed with making an artwork of them, artwork of people who grew up in streets and lived in streets. He said, I paint mostly tramps, refugees and street kids, people who really live the experience of the street and to whom thestreet artis almost never intended. Visual Character. Fig. 2, Ancient Egyptian Art, Tutt Art, 2011 Fig. 2, Ancient Egyptian Art, Tutt Art, 2011Ancient Egyptian artworks often have people and Gods with appearances with human in them. The people in the ancient Egyptian artworks have their arms and shoulders positioned facing the front while their faces are facing the side, along with their legs and hips. The artworks of ancient Egypt are very symbolic. They have many implications in the artwork, especially when it talks about spiritual practices and beliefs. Sometimes, they also have belles-lettres around or in the artwork. It probably could be understood by many other cultures withdraw for those cultures wit completely different beliefs.However, street arts are understood by nearly everyone in the world as they have similar beliefs and r eligions. When it Fig. 3, Smiling Refugee, Street Art London, 2011 Fig. 3, Smiling Refugee, Street Art London, 2011 comes to personal comments on politics, it may be hard for some people to understand. The 21st century street artworks are very stylized, having different themes and styles for every street artists, except for those street artists who only leave their names or nicknames on walls. Theses can be seen as mess on the wall because it has no meaning in it.A street artist called C215 has very colourful style. This artist is told to be realistic but stylized. C215 describes the facial expressions of the main characters in his artworks very precisely to deliver a hidden message arsehole the art piece. As shown Fig. 4, Street Kid, Street Art London, 2011. Fig. 4, Street Kid, Street Art London, 2011. in imagine one, three and four, he describes the facial expressions of elderly woman, refugee and a street kid very precisely. Also, famous street artists often leave their specia l logo somewhere in the artwork.For instance in figure four, a logo for C215 can be seen next to the face. Medium and Technique. Most of the common ancient Egyptian artworks were painted with paints made of mixed pigments with gum, which were the basic colours. Before papyrus leaves were used as papers, the paintings were often done on walls, which were sometimes carved in. These kinds of techniques were used in ancient Egyptian times because the actual paints and paintbrushes werent properly developed. Today, many kinds of tools and styles can be used.For example, C215 usually used stencils to paint on street walls. He makes a background on the wall either free hand or painted utilize stencils, and then puts his main character in the background. He either uses sprinkle paints or paints and paintbrushes, but mostly, spray paints. It shows his personal style and it helps him to paint precise parts of painting such as facial expressions. personalised Response. I think that every ki nd of art has one thing common in them the artists feeling and expression of the time he/she created the artwork.If there is a slight fight between ancient Egyptian art and the 21st century street art, I have go to say that the artworks from ancient Egypt do not have sense of depth and they were all dull whereas 21st century street art has wide range of colours being used and vibrant. Most people will find street art more attractive than ancient Egyptian art as street art has different styles and they are very vibrant. Conclusion. To sum up, ancient Egyptian art has many meanings for spiritual beliefs and practices.It was very symbolic as it represented human by its body parts, so the head is facing the side, shoulders and arms are facing the front and shoulders and arms are facing the side. It is mostly painted with basic colours that are made of mixed pigments and gum. On the other hand, graffiti is more like expressing a personal opinion on certain thing. It has many themes and styles along with many choices of colours. near everyone can understand street art. Furthermore there are many ways to paint for street art and one of many ways is stencils and paints.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

College Athletes Essay Example for Free

College Athletes EssayFor the extended duration the NCAA was never a multi-billion dollar industry many years they did non make half(prenominal) of that. numerous huge colleges had bud owns that would make teams such as Alabama, Georgia, Miami, Oregon, Etc. laugh about what they were able to leave behind for sports. There have been questions for years about whether a college athlete should be paid or not and if athletes deserve to be paid for what they do at that level, after already being paid to go to school there, for around of the players. When athletes go to college they still put themselves in the homogeneous physical danger as a professional athlete does.The NCAA alone is a multi-billion dollar industry that generated over 845 billion dollars at last year in 2011. Facts have shown that college athletes in the NCAA, on an annual salary, make zero dollars however, it is a thanksgiving that they be going to school for free. This business is that they get whole t he work done and the business they requirement to come in and basically the NCAA athletes work for free. Having a scholarship and having their education paid for is something great entirely the silver they get for school is not the however money they need for the bumpy road to their profession.The billions of dollars that is standard annually is nowhere close to being equitable to just a bachelors horizontal surface. What the educatee athletes are earning is a big slice of heaven to some students and their families of course, but it showed accumulate to something higher than that degree of college education. The NCAA has been historically stubborn over changing its ways to adapt to the times. But lately, even NCAA President bell ringer Emmert has conceded that it may be time for college players in big money sports to start getting a specie stipend amounting to as much as a few thousand dollars per year. (Blake Baxter, Eureka College) At least the president of the NCAA has b een admiring the idea of giving money to the players and helping them through their college years. Being an athlete in college is having a job, and their job is to bust their butts at practice, come to play on game day, and repeat that cycle, with no pay. Many athletes with their schedules do not have time to make themselves meals, so they have to buy food or they drive to places where they could get it- which costs money in gas.Football and basketball at the Division unity level have been the biggest suppliers of money because many of their revenues. These two sports have evolved to the level that coaches and universities are making dumfounding amounts of money off of the talent of their student-athletes. With the amount of money coaches and schools make, the athletes should be able to get paid for their strong work, all the pain that they put their bodies through, the countless hours of practice workouts, and classes. Surely they need to be paid for put it all on the line. occu pation 2 Many college athletes make endings that will change their lives- such as Trent Richardson, who played for University Of Alabama. Richardson had to deal with the decision of having to raise two children while being a full time college athlete. When all this was going on, Richardson had no income what so ever, no time, and was dedicated to the football program at U of A. Richardson brought publicity to his school and to other athletes with children that they were trying to raise.While Richardson was at school playing, his two daughters would be at home with their mother watching their daddy play and kissing the screen when he would appear. Hes a big strong guy, hes hitting everybody in practice. And when hes around his kids, hes a completely different person, running back Eddie webbed said. Hes real sweet. Hes a good father. With all the strength he shows on the field and the sweetness he shares with his daughter, and the hard work he and others put out, they still earn ze ro dollars each year.It shows and tells all the time- he puts in time and effort to make it in life and take care of his girls Its a level of maturity you dont normally find among guys his age, running backs coach Burton Burns said. They are a priority for him. He has a tough schedule with school and football, but he is going to find time to degenerate with those girls. That level of maturity should never be second guessed and overlooked to give certain players money to get through school and help raise their family like in Richardsons situation. He is basically working a full time job, going to school, and playing football for Coach Saben.He needs to get what he earns, which would be a little salary. A father and athlete that could say this I dont want them to repugn like I did, to go through the stuff I had to go through, Richardson said. Thats really motivated me on the field. Because when I play with my girls on my mind, I feel like nobody can stop me. Richardson is not the only struggling college athlete. There are a lot of other teams in college that have athletes that participate in the games and practices but do not get any profit from their hard work and dedication.Argument 3 Eric LeGrand, the former Rutgers University football player who was paralyzed from the neck down during a 2010 game, GIving the same effort that each professional athlete makes each game day. Players putting their bodies in this physical danger, and only getting a certain degree when graduating after four years of college. LeGrand the Big Defensive electrician was on kick off team running down the field trying to make a tackle, and when hitting a player he fell to the ground and was motionless it was devastating.The way Eric lives his life epitomizes what we are looking for in Buccaneer Men, Schiano said. If the NCAA would recognize the effort and the danger these athletes are put in, they would be openhanded and give college athletes a little salary. Players like LeGrand a re why i stand behind the decision to pay the players a little profit of what they help make. Without all of these amazing athletes i dont beleive the schools would encounter most of the money they make as a university or college.NOt just football, other sports bring in huge amounts of money from ticket sales, team apparel sales, etc. College Athletes are the epitome of where all the money comes from and deserve more then a bachelor degree, and deserve a little allowance for all their hardwork, bringing in a lot of the income. Works cited http//usatoday30. usatoday. com/sports/college/football/acc/story/2012-01-08/tough-guy-richardson-softens-up-as-a-dad/52458854/1 http//www. cbssports. com/collegefootball/story/21575106/if-college-athletes-really-owe-schools-money-then-they-must-be-paid

Monday, April 8, 2019

Research and the Sciences Essay Example for Free

Research and the Sciences EssayThere has long been an ongoing argument Is affectionate science scientific? Which approach is give way in conducting native sciences and affectionate sciences? It is believed that hypothetico-deductive approach may be applicable to the indwelling sciences while it does not relate well to the mixer sciences. By analyzing look into from unlike levels, this essay presents a judgment that neighborly sciences argon sciences. First of totally, the opinion of research and science be given. Secondly, by evaluate that social sciences argon different from natural sciences, the features that identify social sciences from natural sciences are summarized. There are any(prenominal)(prenominal) choices of approaches to conduct research. In the level of philosophy, research approaches could go to inducive approach and deductive approach. soft research and quantitative research distinguish each other methodologically. In this essay, the different a pproaches are compared and contrasted after(prenominal) a concise interpretation of these concepts. And finally, the question better approach to research in natural sciences and social sciences is considered.Research is defined by Join and Keith as seeking through methodical process to amount ones experience and, hopefully to others by the discovery of nontrivial and insight (Join and Keith, 1996). Williams defined science as the ensemble of knowledge and practices that best reflect and operationalize a critical attitude to the discovery of the world at that moment in succession (Williams, 2000 p.26). Basically, sciences can be divided into social sciences and natural sciences. friendly sciences study human existence and their behavior, while natural sciences study bodily world.The presupposition that natural science is the benchmark of research, in some degree, accounts for why most people associate the word research with activities that are substantially removed from daily flavor and which usually take place in a laboratory. And accordingly arises the doubt whether social science is science.A good deal of overlap and unavoidable duplication will be encountered if any attempt is do to review social sciences and natural sciencessystematically (McErlean, 2000). Yet there are still some characteristic features in which social sciences are different from nature sciences. Historically and perhaps intuitively, the natural and the social sciences energise been identified by distinct subject matters Natural science is a branch of science which deals with the physical world (Pearsall, 1999 P.950), while social science is the scientific study of human society and social relationships (Pearsall, 1999 p.1362). invariableness of notices is different in two kinds of sciences. The difference lies in all likelihood in the number of relevant factors that must be taken into account for informing or predicting events in the real world(McErlean, 2000).It is agreed that verification is not lucky to tote up by in the social sciences, while it is the chief business in the natural sciences. Measurability of phenomena, whereas physics is clearly ahead of all other disciplines. Natural sciences hold got constancy of numerical relationship which social sciences has not got. The social sciences deal so close to a mans own everyday experience that they do not accord the respect as natural sciences. The field of natural sciences needs higher standards of memory access and requirements than the social sciences. On this score, the natural sciences are better than the social sciences (McErlean, 2000). Since social sciences differ from natural sciences in many ways, should different approaches be chosen when conducing social science research and natural sciences? This is another vex question. Now we will turn to the discussion of deduction and induction.Philosophically the approaches are focused on the retainer of induction and deduction, as well as the relationship among approaches and sciences. import entails the discipline of a abstract and theoretical social system prior to its testing through empirical research methods. (Carson et al, 2001 p.11). Induction is the action or process of inducing something (Pearsall, 1999). It is learning by reflecting upon go againsticular past experiences and through the formulation of abstract concepts, theories and generalizations that explain past and predict future experience (Gill and Johnson, 2002).Induction and deduction approaches are different in many aspects. They are best used in different stages of Learning Cycle. When learning takes place, the difference between deductive and inductive approach is that one startswith theory which tested through placard while the other starts with observation and tries to create theory (Gill and Johnson, 2002). Localization of Induction differs from that of deduction (Carson et al, 2001 P12). Induction might prevent the researcher benefiti ng from vivacious theory, while deduction might prevent the development of new and useful theory. In contrast to the deductive tradition, theory is the outcome of induction (Carson et al, 2001 P12). The time needed for induction is a good deal prolonged than deduction B Deductive research is normally executable to predict accurately the time schedules, it is quicker to complete, though the time must be devoted to set up the study prior to data collection and analysis. import and induction carry unequal risk. The deductive approach can be a lower-risk strategy, albeit there are risks like the non-return of questionnaires.With induction it is quite possible that no useful data patterns and theory will not emerge. The effect of deduction or induction is relevant to the ability of researcher. The way one thinks about the development of knowledge affects, unwittingly, the way he goes about doing research (Saunders et al, 2000). So it is to a greater extent appropriate to adopt the in ductive approach if the researcher is particularly interested in understanding why something is happening rather than identify what is happening, Inductive designs begin with specific observations and build toward general patterns. This is different to the hypothetical-deductive approach of experimental designs that require the condition of main variables and the statement of specific research hypotheses before data collection begins (Pattern, 1987).Saunders et al (2000) has shown the main differences between deductive and inductive approaches as can be seen in diagram 1.The fuseing of Induction and Deduction are preferable in conducting a research. In deductive argument, conclusion follows logically from the premises, while inductive argument, in which the premises support the conclusion more(prenominal)over do not guarantee it (Rosenberg, 2000). It seems that deductive is more impressive than inductive. Not only because it is more highly structured and more appropriate for pe ople who are inexperienced in research matters but also because it is the basis of much knowledge thatthey do energise of the subject (Walley, 2002), But the two approaches are not mutually exclusive. They are better at doing different things. So the balance of both approaches in the same research project is preferable. Not only is it abruptly possible to combine approaches with the same piece of research, but also in human beings experience it is ofttimes advantageous to do so (Saunders et al, 2000).For example Sadie decided to conduct a research project on violence at shape and its effects on the stress levels of staff. She considered the different ways she would approach the work were she to adopt, the deductive approach and the inductive approach. If she decided to adopt a deductive approach, She should standardize the stress responses of the staff. On the other hand, if she decided to adopt an inductive approach she may have decided to interview some staffs who had been subj ected to violence at work. She may have been interested in their feelings about the events that they had experienced, how they coped with the problems they experienced and their views about the possible causes of the violence (Saunders et al, 2000). In order to gain more comprehensive results, it is better to combine both approaches. draw 1 Empha surfaces of Deduction and InductionDeduction emphasizesInduction emphasizesScientific principlesGaining an understanding of the meanings humans attach to eventsFrom theory to dataFrom observation to theoryThe collection of quantitative dataThe collection of qualitative dataThe application of controls to ensure validity of dataResearcher is part of the research processEnsure clarity of definitionLess need generalizeHighly structured approachMore flexible structure to permit changes ofresearch emphasisResearcher independence of what is being researchedDependent researcherSelect samples of sufficient sizeSaunders et al (2000 p.91)Researcher ma y use a variety of methodology to conduct research. It is said that the concept of induction often is applied to qualitative research (Strauss and Corbin, 1998 p.136) while deduction is applied to quantitative research. soft research is so called because its emphasis lies in producing data which is rich in insight, understanding, explanation and depth of information, but which cannot be justified statistically (Crouch, 1985). qualitative research usually produces descriptions, explanations and reasons (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). It seeks to answer how and why type questions (Walley, 1995). The strengths of qualitative research derive from its inductive approach, its focus on specific situations or people, and its emphasis on manner of speaking rather than numbers (Maxwell, 1996).It may involve statistics but it is not based on statistical significance. It is characterized by the use of group discussions, personal interviews, projective techniques and non-probability sampling (Wall ey, 1995) .The usefulness of qualitative research depends very much on the skills of the researcher (Gill and Johnson, 2002). Qualitative methods are particularly oriented toward exploration, discovery, and inductive logic. Walley (2002) cited follow (1997) as Quantitative research that primarily research concerned with eliciting information which has statistical significance. Its focus is on quantification of phenomena sampling and large scales postal questionnaires. The quantitative data identify areas of focus whist the qualitative data give substance to those areas of focus.Whereas qualitative data can put flesh on the bones of quantitative results, brining the results to life through in-depth moorage elaborations (Patton, 1987). The patterns displayed in quantitative research can be enriched with the addition of qualitative information (Gill and Johnson, 2002). Thequalitative should bespeak the quantitative feedback into the qualitative in a circular (Strauss and Corbin, 199 8).Thus, recent developments in the evaluation profession have led to multiple methods including combinations of qualitative and quantitative data. Some evaluation questions are determined deductively while others are left sufficiently open to permit inductive analyses based on direct observations. Indeed, there is often a flow from inductive approaches to find out what the important questions and variables are, to deductive hypotheses-testing aimed at confirming wildcat findings, then back again to inductive analysis to look for rival hypotheses and unanticipated or illimitable factors (Patton, 1987).Sayre believed that qualitative methods are chosed because of its emphasis on progresses and meanings while quantitative methods are utilized because they substantiate. Actually both methodologies are combined to provide a comprehensive approach to problem solving (Sayre, 2001).The relation between qualitative research and quantitative research are clearly showed below in the diagram 2. diagram 2 qualitative research and quantitative researchQualitative researchQuantitative researchType of questions ProbingNon-probingSample sizeSmallLarge data per respondentMuchVariesAdministrationRequires interviewer with special skillsFewer special skills requiredType of analysisSubjective, interpretativeStatisticalHardware requiredTape recorders, projection devices, discussion guidesreplicationDifficultEasyResearcher training necessaryPsychology, sociology, social psychology, consumer behaviour, marketing, marketing research Statistics, decision models. decision-support systems, computer programming, marketing, marketing researchType of researchexploratoryDescriptive or causalProctor (2000)In conclusion, the differences between social sciences and natural sciences have been discussed, and the approaches and methods used in conducting both sciences have been compared and contrasted.Social sciences and natural sciences are fundamentally different in many ways, yet social scien ces are, beyond all doubt, scientific too. From the view of philosophy, there are inductive research and deductive research. The deductive approach is probably more impressive. Methodologically quantitative research differs from qualitative research. Each approach has its unique advantages and disadvantages.It would be easy to fall into the trap of thinking that one research approach is better than another. Actually they are better in different situations, depending on where the research emphasis lies. It is encouraged to think in a more flexible way about the research approaches and methods adopted. Yet the best policy in conducting research is to blend approaches.So, it is clear that social sciences are sciences likewise as natural sciences. Adopted appropriately, the methodological approach of natural science can be used to study the social world (Williams, 2000). One approach cannot hence be considered to be better than another in conductingresearch in both natural sciences and social sciences. So it is high time to stop arguing about whether social sciences are science or not. Alternatively, to consider which approach is preferable or how to blend them together is what deserves thinking when a research is conducted. fictitious characterBancroft, G and Osullivan, G.(1993)Quantitative Methods For Accounting and Business Studies .3rded.BerkshireMcGRAW-HILL Book Company Europe.Carson, D. Gilmore, A. Perry, C. Gronhang, K(2001)Qualitative Marketing Research. capital of the United Kingdom Sage publications.Gill, J. and Johnson, P.(2002)Research methods for managers .3rd.ed.capital of the United KingdomSage Publications LtdGreenfield, T.(2002).Research Methods For Postgraduates. 2nded. capital of the United Kingdom Arnold.Sharp, J. A. and Howard, K (1996). The Management of a Student Research Project 2nd.ed AldershotGower Publishing Limited.Maxwell, J.A. (1996)Qualitative Research Design-an interactive approach. 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(1995) Qualitative Research-Discussion Paper. Newport harper Adams Agricultural College.Wa lley, K. (2002) Research Methods For The Agrifood Industry. Newport Harper Adams University College.Williams, M. (2000).Science and social science-An introduction. London Routledge.