Saturday, August 31, 2019

Context and History of Conflict Paper Essay

This essay will discuss the issues between two people, Robert and Denise Patton, along with how these issues affect their two children. To enable an understanding of the problem a summary of the nature and history of the conflict has been given. In addition, a look at the interaction of interests, goals, and the power of each party allows an understanding of each person’s position and role in the conflict as well as personal attempts at resolution of the problem. In working to resolve this conflict there will be strategies discussed which, if Robert and Denise are willing to apply, could help them resolve the conflicts that they are facing in their marriage. Summary of the Nature and History of the Conflict The Patton Family case study has different types of conflict inside it. The summary of the conflict starting with the family dynamic gives a look of what is happening with the family from an outsider looking inward. To an outsider the family is in shambles; they fight regularly, and it seems that the parents have concern about one child only. In the beginning, the parents were happy; they both were on a path that looked successful. They both were in college and had great jobs after college. Once they started a family things changed for the couple. The mother wanted to be a part of the children’s lives more, so she quit her job and found another that worked with her schedule. The parents fought frequently about the youngest child and how to parent him. Since the parents were not getting along for a while the husband finally had enough. He decided to leave the house and tell his wife he wants a divorce. The husband and wife blame each other for the failed marriage, and the youngest child blames himself for his father’s leaving. â€Å"Without an apology or other form of resolution, the trust on both sides is compromised, and may not know what to expect from this person in the future† (Scott, 2011 p. 2). When the father left he never sat down with his children or wife to explain why it had come to this. The father finally had enough with his wife, but he did not explain his reasoning. Context of Conflict The context of the conflict is that two parents have separated after a long marriage resulting from arising conflicts in the marriage. The couple has two children; one who is almost an adult, and the other is a young child who seems to have trouble with his energy at home and at school. The conflict started to occur more frequently and more harshly as their second child started having problems in school. One parent, the mother, believes that there is something wrong with him and that he requires special attention with him all the time. A child with these kinds of behaviors would become costly and would require significant attention. The other parent believes that his son is just spoiled and requires normal attention and discipline. He further believes that these luxuries have left his son vulnerable with a lack of awareness for his surroundings. Whether or not the parents are splitting, they were a team trying to provide for their two children. â€Å"When managing conflicts, collectivist cultures place more emphasis on the avoidance and accommodation of conflicts because collectivists value harmony, security, and conformity† (Hong, 2008). Interactions of Interests, Goals, and Power The interests, goals, and power of both parents are that they cannot stand each other and need space in to function. One believes that he does not receive enough attention from his family and wife, and that they show no gratitude for his hard work. He has been working for many years and has primarily been the sole wage-earner in the family. The wife feels that her family does not appreciate her. She feels that she has lost her active role in the environment of her oldest child and husband. Her focus has been her young son who has been having these troubles at school and home. This amount of pressure has shut her out of everyone’s world except her son, who does not know what is going between the two split parents. According to the text the â€Å"conflict above may be substituting for intimacy and connection, or it may serve as a launching pad for problem solving† (Hocker & Wilmot, 2011). Attempts Made at Conflict Resolution There are competing family goals regarding Arnie (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011). Robert believes lack of discipline is the cause and wants Arnie to be held accountable whereas Denise believes there is a neurological basis and believes Arnie should be tested and treated according to his perceived needs. Though both parents have expressed ideas for dealing with the problem they have not agreed on a method, nor given significant consideration to the other’s opinion in this matter. The conflict has evolved and in the process a couple of resolution tactics have been used. Early in the conflict, aggression and competition were used, with each attempting to use power of position as a tool to win the battle. Rob made the money and determined it would not be used for mental health treatment; Denise was primary care-giver and as such was responsible for seeing that Arnie’s needs were met. Screaming matches to coerce the other into submission failed and eventually gave way to avoidance (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011). Withdrawal from the conflict equated to withdrawal from the relationship as the couple slept apart and ceased communication (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011). The interactions that did take place were interpreted based upon past events, setting the paradigm for what each could expect from the other, likely feeding into rather than helping to resolve the conflict (Coltri, 2010). Robert’s final act of avoidance was for self-protection; he moved out to protect himself from further emotional harm (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011). Personal Initial Reactions or Strategies for Resolving this Conflict Personal Initial Reaction The initial reaction to the conflict between Robert and Denise is that they should agree to mediation as a mean of solving their disagreement. Denise relies on Robert for complete financial support for their family. The problem here is Denise does not want to work because of their son’s neurological condition. Robert believes differently about Denise not wanting to work and feels that Denise is using Arnie’s condition as an excuse. Robert and Denise seek legal consultation, after Robert leaves the home. Strategy for Resolving this Conflict Legal consultation has it advantage but mediation would be better in this situation. Most lawyers discuss with clients if they should choose mediation based on their situations. Mediation would give the couple the opportunity to explain their side of the situation in privacy. Attorneys are contacted for legal advice but mediation is for solving issues and helping the couple to make the right decision. An attorney represents only the client who has retained his or her service and not for solving the problems. A mediator has a neutral part and only help in resolving the issues. Mediation taken place in courts is not private and the judge makes decision on the case. In the case of Robert and Denise, mediation would allow them to decide the outcome. The best thing for Robert and Denise is to have a mediator presence to help settle property, child support, and custody issues. According to Divorceinfo (2013) â€Å"The mediator remains neutral between the husband and the wife. That means the mediator can’t give advice to either party, and also can’t act as a lawyer for either party.† Conclusion Robert and Denise Patton seek legal consultation as a mean of finding ways of settling their conflicts. Legal consultation provides the couple with advice on the best avenue to take in solving their problems. Once the two meet with their lawyer, the couple is told if they should have a mediator there with his or her lawyer. Mediators do not represent either of the couple, only the individuals’ lawyers do.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Impact of Global and Local Media Advertisement on Children Essay

Abstract: Children have become much more interested watching TV over many years and it has become a primary action to some lives. Typically, children begin watching television at an early age of one year, and by the age two or three children become enthusiastic viewers. This has become a problem because many children are watching television and the shows that they are watching (even if they are cartoons) have become violent and addictive. Now a days they are addicted to watching TV .Comparatively spending hour for playing is less than watching TV, play video games. TODAY all TV ads focused on  children to attract consumers and were targeting the child viewer. Children in the 5-15 years age group want to buy products (by the influence of ads). Monitoring of advertisements has become essential. Children that have large amounts of TV time have increased weight problems, decreased academic performance, and decreased socialization skills. Thus the present study aims to find the how TV Advertising influences their children’s and how it affects their health in Pondicherry. Key Words: Advertising, children, Influence, television. INTRODUCTION: Since the middle of the twentieth century, television has grown from a novelty to a fixture in 90 percent of Indian households. Over time, the character of the medium also changed dramatically. Once offering only three principal broadcast networks, viewers’ choices now may extend to more than a hundred channels. Children are consumers of a variety of media, including computers, video games, print media, videotapes, music, and television. Although television is the most commonly used medium, viewing time varies with age. From two to seven years of age, children’s viewing time is about two hours per day. Increasing through childhood, it peaks at about three and a half hours per day during middle school before dropping off to about two and a half hours per day during adolescence. CHILDREN in India now spend about three hours a day in front of the television screen. An average child is estimated to have watched 5,000 hours of television by the time he or she enters first grade and 25,000 hours by the end of high school — more time than would be spent in a classroom earning a college degree. Television has become a potent agency of socialization because like the family, school, and peers, it directly provides the child with experiences which shape their attitudes and influence their behaviors. In evaluating television’s influence on children, it is important to view this medium as an element in a matrix of influences in a child’s social environment.  Television seems to become a growing source of parental anxiety. Parents worry most of all about the amount and kinds of programs their children watch, and definitely these fears are legitimate. ADVERTISEMENT AND CHILDREN: Advertisements encourage the children to persuade their parents to purchase the products shown in the commercials, whether useful or not. The little ones tend to get adamant, if they are not bought the product. Children often tend to misinterpret the messages conveyed in commercials. They overlook the positive side and concentrate more on the negatives. Many advertisements in the present times include dangerous stunts, which can be performed only by experts. Even though the commercials broadcast the statutory warnings with the ad, the kids often try to imitate the stunts at home, with fatal results. The flashy advertisements broadcast in television generate impulse shopping in children. Children, after watching the glitter of commercials, often lose the ability to live a life without materialistic joy. The kids usually get more attracted towards the costly branded products, such as jeans and accessories. They disregard the inexpensive, but useful, ones that are not shown in the commercials. Advertisements have an indirect effect on the behavior of children. They might develop temper tantrums, when deprived of the latest toys and clothes that are shown in the commercials. The personal preferences in clothing, toys, food and luxurious of children are altered by the advertisements, to a great extent. Junk foods, such as pizzas, burgers and soft drinks, are heavily promoted during children’s TV viewing time. This develops a craving for fatty, sugary and fast foods in kids, thereby affecting their health adversely. BELOW ARE FINDINGS FROM SOME OF THE MORE RELIABLE STUDIES. In last 20 years impact of TV advertisements on children memory and behavior is the major topic of debates in countries open for market competition (Boddewyn, 1984).Till 1988 advertising expense of TV program raised up to $500 million approximately (Leccese, 1989). While looking at the children responses to TV advertisement a research experiment revealed that children’s  food choices especially in snacks are based on their exposure to TV commercials (Gorn and Goldberg, 1982). Atkin (1981) also confirmed these findings in his experimental study and found that the children with heavy exposure to TV advertisements are more likely to recall those brands while shopping in the market and with their parents. Those children demand advertised food products and toys while moving in market with their parents. Children ranging in between 6 to 11 years of age watch TV commercials 3 hours a day and it is estimated that over the period of a year average child see about 20,000 advertisements (Adler et al, 1980). Most of the research in consumer behavior and specially on advertisement impact on children has focused two major points :(1) impact of TV commercials in shaping behavior and its positive or negative influence on children life and habits.(2) Role of TV commercials on the development and growth mental as well as physical of the children’s(Donohue, Meyer and Henke,1978). RESEARCH DESIGN: The aim of the research is to study the impact of TV advertising on impressionable minds of the children & it effects on their attitude & health. This paper deals with various factors like nature of the children, their likes & dislikes, the parent’s role in decision making & the influence of advertising on the buying habits of the kids. The data collection was done using convenience sampling method in the form of questionnaire. Analysis of data has been done using CHI-SQUARE test methods such as observed frequency table ,Expected frequency table . This paper not only concentrates on the findings but also suggests corrective measures to be taken up to minimize the after effects of the advertising world which will be always on the upsurge. The number of children exposed now to the ad world will surely increase as newly found segment will be heavily dosed for surviving in this competitive market. So this research paper aims at taking precautionary steps in the ethical front of the advertisers and of course on the parental & children’s front. PROBLEMS: 1. Could be more time consuming 2. It could have serious detrimental outcomes on both mental and even  physical health of children 3. Significant harmful effect on academic performance, poor grades and schoolwork 4. Negative influence of beliefs and behaviors OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1. To investigate the impact of level in Pondicherry state 2. To study the psychological attitude and health condition of children in Pondicherry state. 3. To discuss the effect of media advertisement in family especially young children. 4. To study the economic fluctuation by media advertisement. 5. To analysis the changing face of children over the year 6. To become proactive in learning to choose and use media advertisement wisely METHODOLOGY FOR IMPACT OF MEDIA ADVERTISEMENT ON  CHILDREN IN PONDICHERRY STATE: 1. Quantitative Data collection methods a) Experiments / clinical trials. b) Observing and recording well-defined events (e.g., counting the number of persons) c) Obtaining relevant data from management information systems. d) Administering surveys with closed-ended questions (e.g., face-to face and telephone interviews, questionnaires etc). e) Primary Data collection 2. Interviewing method a) In depth interview b) Face to face interview c) Telephone interview d) Observation method e) Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) 3. Questionnaires a) Paper-pencil-questionnaires b) Less structured protocols c) Heavily on interactive interviews 4. Through Media Awareness Network a) ( Web based questionnaires 5. Qualitative methods a) In -depth psychological analysis b) Observation methods c) Document review 6. Survey methods a) Sampling in research b) Cross section study and longitudinal studies 7. Statistical Analysis HYPOTHETICAL CONCEPT: The children of Pondicherry State have been seriously affected by the television advertisement; which is leading serious detrimental outcomes on mental and physical health. My study goes to reveal a positive co relationship exists between time spent with television and its impact on the buying behavior of a child and its influence on family spending and skipping of concentration from their studies. RSULT AND DISCUSSION: Data Collection Primary data A questionnaire was prepared for getting the view of parents and their kids on the purchasing choices and eating habits of kids. It was mainly directed towards what kind of impact does the advertising has on the impressionable minds & how advertisement decides their buying and eating habit. The survey had to be done at the point of purchase. So it was carried out in food malls where the brands are sold & places like Richi Richi , Jaya Emporium – Pondicherry & places like schools where we can actually meet the parents. Second part of the survey was conducted in my college â€Å"Achariya Arts And Science College Villianur ,Puducherry. In my collage.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Ethical obligations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ethical obligations - Essay Example Hence there is a great amount of responsibility that goes within their working basis. They know that if they falter, there is someone else to take their seat and the public would never approve of them in the first place. It is this accountability factor that asks of them to give in their best time and time again. What is most significant is the fact that public administrators have an ethical obligation to perform, mostly on all of the occasions where they get in touch with the public. It goes to suggest without much exclamation that public administrators face ethical responsibilities because it is the public that they have to hold fast on to. They know that if the public does not get the benefits from their undertakings, it would be a futile exercise to work their way through different tasks and actions. The public administration implications in taking good care of the public health sector, housing, education and others is centered on the premise of the peculiar reinforcement strateg ies. These are followed in a very proactive fashion and that too on a consistent rate. The reinforcement phenomenon gets implemented when there are situations which ask of the public administrators to give in their very best on a constant basis. ... he domains of the public administrators, the people resourcing discussion is based on the tangent of giving more significance to the people who are more skilled and who get the most work done in an efficient capacity. However these elements must come with an ethical obligation attached with the same (Bertucci 2006). This means that the public administration implication is made stronger with each passing day and the reinforcement strategies with the help of the motivational reward hierarchies working towards the eventual benefit of the public at large. Administering people with an ethical responsibility thus becomes precisely an easy task as it manifests sound objectives in a quick manner. Thus the public administration implication of administering people through the assistance of the reinforcement strategies is a difficult proposition if the public administrator does not carry out his homework in a well-cohesive fashion. He must know what he is propagating and that too at the right l evels, on a consistent basis. There are a few instances when the public trusts the administration that has been given the right to serve them, and this is indeed an aspect which could be seen in the positive aspects under the relationship between the two – the public and the public administrators. The recent trends in privatizing government functions has a dilemma attached to it, especially when one considers the case related with the attainment of public interest and the like. What this does is to make sure that privatization remains the key within the understanding of the public that it exists to bring harmony within their ranks and not to make them feel indifferent to privatization or even experience numbness towards it. Privatization within the public administration regimes is

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Perceived Stress for Middle School Principals Essay

Perceived Stress for Middle School Principals - Essay Example eform movement was unlike any previous laws enacted in the past, and it literally reshaped the traditional school system that had been a mainstay of American culture for well over two centuries. President Bush actually drew upon his various experiences as governor of Texas in helping to draft the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular reform movement carried many similarities to legislation passed in the Texas during the 1990s, only now to implemented on a national scale (Debray, 2005). Upon coming into office, the Bush administration quickly set forth an ambitious educational reform agenda and, by 2001, it was already evident that legislation would be drafted that would be unlike any previous attempts at educational reform made by other Presidents before him (Sunderman, 2005). During this time, is also became well known that certain provisions within NCLB itself would be completely new to professional educators and the public alike. This included the provision for state mandated testing, the frequency with which such exams would be required, and the disciplines that the tests would encompass. The legislation also mandated a strict focus on improving scores in the areas of mathematics and reading, as well as setting aside funding and penalties for thousands of schools almost immediately upon the signing of the actual legislation (Sunderman & Kim, 2005). One area that quickly became a target was local school districts. They were required to give up control over the student assessment process in deference to new federal guidelines and procedures. The No Child Left Behind Act went so far as to require respective state in the Union to design their own exams and then administer them to every eligible child within their fold. For really the first time in the history of America, this particular reform effort mandated academic improvement as a matter of law, and not just principle (Orefield, 2005). In reality, this quickly became a regulatory issue, as

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Dew Breaker Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Dew Breaker - Assignment Example nt is a building block, ever so delicately placed, that Danticat employed in order to give a hint as to his fathers own relationship with his memories, his past deeds, and his life in general. His fascination with mummies and the past, that they last for thousands of years, reflects his own fascination with his own past, and the dark secrets that lay there. His dark secrets, Danticat wanted to hint at, likewise has the ability to last for thousands of years, haunting his father even as he tries to live a new and placid life in America with his daughter. That anecdote on the grieving practices of the ancient Egyptians is a hint on top of other hints, much like the title of the book is a hint of what his father was in a past life, a torturer and a prison guard of proven cruelty (Danticat; Corbett). We get a sense that this is so, that the mummies are really representative of artifacts of guilt and shame, and in some ways of the actual terror and cruelty that his father, as a â€Å"dew breaker†, inflicted on many people during his watch as prison guard. There is a sense in some analyses of the novel, for instance, that point to this way that Danticat portrays the guilt and the terror that people, both victims and perpetrators, feel all the way to the present, even though they try so hard to live new lives and to escape from their past. This paper asserts that the fascination with the grieving process,and the reference to mummies living on for thousands of years, is in fact a symbolic representation of how, for the torturers like his father,and for the victims of that torture, there is no escaping the past, because the past lives on, like mummies which will not disintegrate and be completely forgotten. This paper asserts that this is a valid point to make. As far as victi ms go, for instance, there is the story that seems to mirror the fathers fascination with the past, and with it an unseen bag of bones, so to speak, that hides in the fathers psyche, a bag of bones

Monday, August 26, 2019

International peopel management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

International peopel management - Essay Example However this is not a child’s play despite all the help and guidance provided by the books and articles on this respective subject. Managers who are putting an effort to find out face several problems and hurdles and this is what this article will deal with the problems of investigating employee commitment in an organization. Before we move on to the main topic of our discussion it is very important that we make clear that exactly employment commitment is, what are the different types, why is it so important and what are the symptoms of low employment commitment. This is what this section will deal in. Employment commitment in simple English can be defined as the emotional connection that a worker feels towards his or her organization. Along with this it is also the degree to which he associates himself with his respective firm and the feeling of belonging he has for the firm. In short it can be defined as the attachment of an emotional level to ones firm. It will be a surprise to know that not all types of commitment are desirable and they also have different factors that lead to different types of commitments (Kickul 2001). For the purpose of understanding we will take up two kinds of commitment here, the first one being effective commitment which is the true emotional connection of an individual havin g with the firm. This is also known as organizational loyalty. However this emotional connection can be towards peers, customers, profession or the job and not necessarily the whole of the organization. The second type of commitment is the continuance commitment. This is not completely an emotional connection but more of a mental act. This basically exists when employees feel that it is best for them to stay with the firm they are working for their personal benefit. For instance, if they find their firm progressing effectively and successfully they will find it

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Preliminary Investigations Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Preliminary Investigations - Assignment Example His arrest however, provides a good platform in assessing the preliminary protocols in the U.S criminal justice system. The first consideration relates to the facts behind Johnson’s arrest that according to the charges that the ABC officers relied on. The incident leading to the arrest of Johnson started when he was denied entry into a bar the day that marked St. Patrick’s celebrations (Yarn and Ford,  2015). Johnson, currently aged twenty years falls under the U.’S legal drinking age of twenty one years that is equally upheld in the state of Virginia. The National Minim Drinking Age Act of 1984 sets the drinking standards within the U.S as for individuals above the age of twenty-one years through either public possession or purchase. The allegations against Johnson indicate that during his time of arrest, he was intoxicated and equally resisted arrest. The arrest of Johnson falls under two counts, first, he contravenes the 1984 Act of minimum age drinking and secondly, he obstructs justice. The second aspect under consideration relates to the actions taken by the investigating officers where Johnson was taken to custody for further questioning and assessment as to his level of intoxication (Yarn and Ford,  2015). Further actions relates to inquiring information from both the offender and the bar operators where the incident begun once Johnson was held back. From the information provided, those who turned Johnson back argue on the basis of his age while Johnson through his attorney present a different story. After the investigations, the requirement of every suspect is to adhere to the next step in the criminal justice system. Failure of sufficient evidence linking the suspect with the crimes may cause a stop to the case. Consequently, the suspect may be detained where he fails to adhere to the requirements of the criminal justice

Saturday, August 24, 2019

JPMorgan Chase Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

JPMorgan Chase - Essay Example comparing with the laws existing or the existing banks’ policies and in case of any fraud, they take the financial institutions in court with enough evidence to prosecute. A valid contract has four major elements as explained by (Meiners, Ringleb and Edwards, 2014). The first of these elements is the offer and acceptance by both parties involved in the contract. An offer is made to the consumer who then accepts it. This is followed by intention to create legal relations which are carried out in order to ensure that the contract will be declared legally binding in which case both parties have to fulfill and abide by it. This is conducted with the presence of a witness orally or even with writing. After these two elements comes the considerations where the actual contract terms are discussed and negotiated. These include terms such as payments or any financial obligations involved or even the duration of the contract. Lastly is the signing of the contract and sealing the deal. The signing or completion of the deal through handshake should not be carried out under duress, undue influence or even under false statements which is what the fraudulent banks d o. Each party of the contract is supposed to honor their contract and not intentionally breach it as it will not only invalidate the contract but will destroy the relationship with the contracting party and this is not fair. Intentional tort actions according to (Meiners, Ringleb and Edwards, 2014) are the actions which are done by people will the desire or sole purpose to harm them. These actions are wrongful and are committed by these people consciously. The individual carrying out these wrongful actions that harm are fully aware of the consequences of his or her action as they are purposeful but does not to stop them from happening. On the other hand, negligence tort actions are those actions that are committed through the failure of individuals to be responsible enough and do the correct actions they were

Friday, August 23, 2019

Exploring how Japanese managers adapt in the United States Essay

Exploring how Japanese managers adapt in the United States - Essay Example This in turn makes the organizations to send their local professionals to foreign countries. This however happens most of the time. In order to survive in a foreign country, one of the things that will make it easy for you is to understand the culture of your host country. This enables smooth and effective communication. In understanding the culture of that given country, the most important thing that the Japanese learn is in particular what each society and what they display mean. Cultural adaptations should be on the key front when these manager of organizations decide that they are to send their employees to work in a foreign country (Hoecklin 1995). By implementing a moderate level of cultural adaptation in main settings, professionals create more effectual business relationships, in that way furthering tactical corporate goals. Globalization generates new business opportunities for multinational corporations (MNCs) These MNCs increasingly employ expatriation approaches to make t heir entrance in to markets that are new easy and to administer their coworkers. As much as the responsibility of the worker who is sent to a foreign country is very important, the strategy in which they adapt in is surrounded with a lot of danger. Additionally, the emigre also posses multiple risks for instance if their result outcome is low, this leads to major financial hitches to the organization. (Hodgetts 2005). Many expletory studies of how Japanese emigres become accustomed to working in the United States after a while have been conducted at length. The final results recommend that the managers of Japanese origin adapt ways that are way above their normal concrete and vigor in their stay in the United States. It is also to be noted that the bigger the group of emigres, the... For managers to be effectual in becoming accustomed to their know-how and practices in an overseas country, it is clear that they must have fine technical knowledge in management, excellent understanding of local culture that is culture-specific knowledge in addition to high-quality cross-cultural communications abilities. even though it may be fair to presume that all à ©migrà © managers sent abroad have to necessarily be technically capable which may differ in some cases, it should be comprehended that being able to function well in one’s own culture does not automatically imply that one can do well in a different culture. This possibly will not just be due to the lack of cultural knowledge. To be efficient as a manager in one’s own culture does not usually necessitate one to question lots of the cultural suppositions behind one’s actions or to recognize the cause’s actions, whether they are technically necessary or culturally pleasing to attain good outcomes. To be able to transplant management or technical processes in a different culture, or to expand such processes from zero or from accessible local processes, would necessitate one to question many essential suppositions and to set up the fresh premises based on fine perceptive of in cooperation technical and cultural requirements. It is this final feature of technical capability, which is often tricky to identify. Though, such competence are most probably there in people who are inventive in their own culture, such as those who are capable of setting up novel processes and systems to manage with environmental changes at home and to augment organizational efficiency otherwise, such capability could also be found in people who have already a triumphant track record in cross-cultural management.

EasyJet A No Frills Airline Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

EasyJet A No Frills Airline - Coursework Example Strategy refers to the action plan, which is designed for attaining long-term objectives (Nickols, 2012). A strategy framed at the business level is usually termed as business level strategy. It can be further defined as the adoption along with the implementation of vital decisions towards the attainment of long-term objectives (Beard & Dess, 1981). The term ‘competitive advantage’ refers to the competitive position, wherein one organisation is able to generate more revenues as compared to other related companies. For instance, Micromax, a mobile phone company, grabbed a high market share in nations such as India through the utilisation of cost leadership strategy. A company achieves greater competitive position, when it is able to gain control over its competitors relating to every business or operational aspect (Ware & Grantham, 2010). Although Easyjet has utilised several strategies for developing its competitive position, the airline company mainly focused on cost leadership strategy amid the prime ones (Gallagher, 2004). Cost leadership strategy refers to gaining high market share by providing goods and services at the lowest possible prices. Michael Porter first developed and defined the concept of this particular strategy. The other available options can be reckoned as ‘differentiation’ and ‘niche marketing’ strategies (Dess & Davis, 1984). Michael Porter developed three generic strategies that aimed at supporting the organisations towards fulfilling their respective objectives. In this regard, one of such strategies is cost leadership, which leads to attain superior competitive advantage through reduction in costs. Differentiation strategy aims at gaining competitive advantage by providing the customers with unique features embedded in the products and services (Dess & Davis, 1984). Focus or niche marketing strategy derives

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Essay Example for Free

Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Essay Spirituality, as defined in this article entitled Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease, is the capacity to rise above life experiences, to celebrate life, and to experience joy. Spirituality is comprised of acceptance, the need for love, mercifulness, and self-fulfillment and it applies to all mankind; on the other hand, being religious is relative to the person’s religious group and its practices (Cooper-Effa, et al. , 2001). They have divided a person’s spiritual well-being into involving a religious component or a relationship with God and an existential component, which involves the individual’s sense of life purpose. It was concluded in this study that those patients with a relatively high existential component were able to cope up more with the pain and the over-all outcome of the disease. It has been known that spirituality can increase the ability to tolerate pain (cited in Landis, 1996). This concept can be applied by getting the patient’s cooperation and trust, and then the nurse will facilitate a talk about spirituality. This will empower the patient to establish his spirituality and the nurse will also be able to develop closer ties with the patient, improving rapport. The nurse can further help the patient by getting him a spiritual counselor, as per patient’s request. By helping the patient strengthen his spirituality, an improvement in the patient’s over-all outlook on the disease, on life, and a probability of lesser pain may take place. Holistic practice in nursing is very important nowadays. As a nurse, there are several skills that should be present to help client’s achievement of spiritual needs. The nurse should be open to all kinds of religion and beliefs, he must try to maintain open minded. He or she should respect these beliefs and religious practices by not questioning the nature of these and by participating in these activities whenever the client wishes the nurse to. Also, nurses cannot let their own beliefs take over them. If there are circumstances wherein the nurse finds that he is unable to accept a client’s belief or practice, then it would be best for the nurse to ask for help from another nurse discreetly. Patience, understanding, and wisdom are needed for a successful patient and nurse interaction. References Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. (2001). Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Retrieved February 01, 2008, from http://www. medscape. com/viewarticle/405838_1.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Segmentation Targeting And Positioning Of Nestle Marketing Essay

Segmentation Targeting And Positioning Of Nestle Marketing Essay Nestles promising to providing quality products to Singapore people. dates back more than 90 years ago trading MILKMAID condensed milk by Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company. After the some years it has been provided in Singapore for Singaporeans, Nestlà © has won the trust of Singaporeans for being a food maker with the maximum safety and quality measurement with this products.   Nestlà © started its business and operation in Singapore in 1912 and has become successful in this country, largely as a net result of its operating principles. These seek primarily to:- Offer Singaporeans the mostly safety and quality measurement in our food and beverage products in Singapore. Nestle Utilized the most new and up-to-date advance technology and its accounted science-based experienced in the manufacture of milk food products. Nestle takes its broad responsible partner as a corporate citizen member by availability in community and social projects that contribute to the speedy development of the country. Nestlà © brands are household names in Singapore and very well-known company. These include MILO, NESCAFÉ, MAGGI, NESTLÉ NESVITA OMEGA PLUS ACTICOL, KIT KAT, PURINA, FRISKIES and many of other market competitors in their product categories.   Segmentation, Targeting   Positioning of  Nestle. Executive Summary Nestle is global company of milk products and nutrition, chocolates, beverage, catering  and  many  type  of  confectionary  goods.  It  has  its  millions  of  customers  worldwide. Today  Nestlà © Singapore Limited is on good positioned to grow through its business policy of  constant  innovation  and  renovation,  concentrating  on  its  core competencies and commitment to better and high quality, with the aim of availability to the  best quality food to the people of Singapore. In the report we have brought a  discussion about the marketing segmentation of Nestle, their target  market and positioning strategy in Singapore. The way Nestle chooses its different core customers different needs with a better way and how it fulfilled satisfaction its consumers by making greater  facilities by the aggregate of different products or marketing mixes is shown in market segmentation of Nestlà ©. In the area of market viewing we have talk ing how Nestle have made many segments and decided to expand their whole business in whole Singapore. In the end of this we have talking how Nestle available to the customers point more Efficiently and effectively comparing with their other manufacture competitors in the highly challenging food beverage market of Singapore by making  differentiation of target Users and customers. Nestle is the biggest nutrition and foods company in the globe, established his headquarter in Vevey, Switzerland. The journey of Nestle begins with Henri Nestlà © developed the first milk food for early in 1867, and saved the life of a neighbors child. This man makes a food for the needy babies who are not able to take mothers feed can use food as an alternative food. Henri Nestle left his job in 1875 but the Nestle was going on a top speed. In the coming year the Nestlà © company introduced condensed milk, so that the company became direct and strong rivals. After that the company was joined in 1905 with the a firm named Anglo-Swiss Milk company which was established by two  brothers  named  George  Page  and  Charles  Page.  The  firm  reenter significantly during the First World War  though it fall in debt, a banker provide facility and help it to less its debt. After the 2nd World War  , the company eventually increased its providing beyond its firsty c ondensed milk and infant formula  products. The 1920s saw Nestlà ©s first enter into new products, with chocolate the  Nestlà ©s  second  big important  activity. Nestlà ©Ã‚  felt the effects of World War II  immediately. Profits decreased from US$200 lakhs 1938 to US$60 lakhs in 1939. But after the World War II was the starting of a dynamic phase  for Nestlà ©. Growth speeder and companies were taken. At this time the company operates in 86 countries around the world and hired manpower around 283,000. Theoretical  Consideration Marketing  Strategies: The  Strategic  plan  provides  the  companys  overall mission and objective and new hpopes to achieve companys views. Through market segmentation, targeting and positioning the company takes decisions which customers it will provide and how. The company also makes designs a marketing mix made up of  factors under its control product, price, place,  promotion. Strategy of Nestle in Singapore:   Nestlà ©s required strategy is to cover only the developed area of Singapore. Thats why  they  are  doing  their  activities  in  main  and  metropolitan  cities  of  Singapore. They want to put babies and children healthy and ensure their  sufficient nutrition.  Thats  why  main and large range  of  their  products  are  baby  milk food  products. They also target new age generation to build a strong relationship by  providing various eatable products. In the information, we are going to point outs of Nestle is to segment, target the  potential customers and to positioning of their profitable products. Their  segmentations, targeting, positioning process are given below. Nestle want to change customers toward their products. Thats why they are offering  new  products  regularly.  They  also  provide  many  social competitions for babies to go their  mindset. In this report we are looking to focus of Nestle Singapore is to segment,  target  the  major  customers  and  to  position  of  their  profitable products. The relevant information is given below:- Market  Segmentation: The marketing concept asks for  understanding customers requirements and satisfying their  requirements and needs better than the others do. But many customers have different requirements and it hardly chance to satisfy all customers by treating them same just like. Market segmentation is the searching of part of the market that are not similar from other. Segmentation provides the firm to good satisfy the needs of its major customers. 1.  Clearer  understanding  of  the  requirements  and  needs  of  selected  customer  groups. 2. More effective positioning in this place. 3. Greater precision in selecting  promotional Transportation vehicles and techniques. Bases for  Segmentation: Users markets can be divided on the basis of these customer characteristics. 1. Geographic area 2. Demographic area 3. Psychographic area 4. Behavioral area Geographic: Nature: Nestlà © Singapore segmented its market for Nescafe Ice  depends on the geographic weather: warm hot and cold.   Nescafe Ice: A coffee which may be consume with ice. During warm season consumers making this coffee with normal, chilled or cold water mixing ice cube to  bring freshness in their body. Demographic Age: Nestlà © segmented market area for its main products based on the genration. For  the products Cerelac, Lectogen, Koko Krunch, Nido, Nestle divided the market area segment for new born baby and  children of different ages. Nido It is  nutritious milk specially makes for children 2 years onwards. It includes 25 minerals and vitamin D which helps childs growth. Cerelac : Nestle also provide cerelac for new aged baby. It contains milk and rice mixture for less than one  years baby. It fulfills babys proper nutrition in foods. Nesquick, Koko Krunch : above are chocolate milk for babies. Nesquick  and Koko krunch contain childs required growth. Its very sweet and delicious and also includes vitamin protein, mineral. Lactogen : Nestle Singapore brings full cream milk powder in the country. It gives baby required nutrition. Lactogen one is for childs whose age not more than 6months and lectogen 3 is for babies whose age  is below 1 year. Income : Nestle segmented their market based on customers earnings in an effective way. Occupation :  Nestle  segmented  the  market  based  on  their  users occupation. Nescafe classic : This product is for that type of persons those who work busy and hard and requireds more freshness. Both the male and  female who need more caffeine and this type of needs Nescafe classic is for them. Psychographic: Life  style  and  personality:  Nestle  Singapore  provides  KIT  KAT  these  people who really want to taste and enjoy chocolate. Nestle Nescafe 3 in 1 is for specially those users and customers who are really ingaged in activity and do not have more time. They can use by taking Nescafe 3 in 1.All the things are mixed sugar, milk and coffee. Behavioral Benefits Based on benefits Nestle Singapore segmented their market in an efficient way. So they make available Cerelac for those customers who want more  profit from the product. Cerelac includes  a high nutrition for babys whose age is less than 1 year. Two very important things rice and milk remain added in cerelac. On the other part, cerelac includes vitamin, more mineral and all major useful nutritious elements for babies.   Target Marketing: Market segmentation reveals the firms market opportunities. Then the firmsort  market  targeting  by  evaluating  the  many types  market  segments  and deciding which and in which quantity segments it will target.   Nestle examined the different type of market segments on the basis of  segment  size  and  growth,  segments,  structural  attractiveness,  and Nestle objectives and resources and decided to introduced their operation whole of Singapore country. Nestle distributes their target market because of having unique requirements and wants.  Nestle Singapore selected their  target market into two market coverage policy: Differentiated : Nestle also choose the differentiated marketing. He provides different product for many segments based on different ages, occupation, season and climate of Singapore. Nescafe 3 in 1 : Coffee for customers who are busy in life. Koko  Krunch,  Nesquick   :  Chocolate  milk  who  want  to  get  taste  of  real chocolate. Nescafe Ice : Cold coffee for the customer in hot and warm weather. Concentrated: Through concentrated marketing, Nestlà © earned a strong market position because of its very good knowledge of consumer requirement. In theniches  it  serves  and  special  reputation  it  acquires.  Nestlà ©Ã‚  specializes  in  producing baby foods. It offers nutritious milk powder Lectogen 1 for  babies whose age is less than 7 months and lectogen 3 for babies whose age is not more than 12month. It also make available baby nutrition cerelac for baby more than 12 months. Positioning Strategy: By  creating  product,  service,  channel,  people  and  image  differentiation  Nestle arrives the consumer touch point more easily, effectively efficiently in comparing with other competitors in the highly competitive food processing market. Product  Differentiation : Nestle brings a many of  product for target customers.   They make available 25 types of minerals in Nido for children. It also arranged Cereals  and  Lactogen 1  3  for  newly  born  baby  exclusively.   Now  the doctors says these products for childs to their parents for great maximum nutrition  Nescafe  is  a  product  which  contains  4  types  of  categories.  They  offer  Ã‚  Nescafe ice for hot and warm weather, They  provide  Maggi  including  Maggi  instant;  Maggi  2  minutes  which Includes and contain various minerals, vitamins and nutritions. Channel  Differentiation :  Nestle  reach  their  products  to  the  customersthrough  their  experienced  market  salesman  and  transportation.  So  that  their  Ã‚  products. are much easy to  their customers. Image  differentiation Nestlà ©s logo is  totally different from others competitors that are greatly choices by its users. For that way customer easily choose them in the  market which is another effective benifits for Nestle products. People differentiation The company has a large number of manpowers that are highly educated and trained. In Singapore, 400 employees are employed in market Company chairman; They are running this  business successfully for a long time. Service  differentiation Another  advantage  for  this  company  is  better  service for its respective users from its competitors. They provide 247  hot  line  service.  High  quality  checking  is  providing for  its customers. Its marketing dept. and public relation dept. are working for  finding out customers new needs and  response toward their nestle products. Positioning Statement Baby  Products To  babies  who  are  deprived  of  proper  nutrition,Nido,Cerelac,Lactogen are the very nutritious milk Product that provide you more use full nutrition different from any other brand because these includes different types of vitamin, mineral etc. GOOD FOOD for GOOD LIFE Conclusion The advent of consumer food products has brought an immense change in the field in the consumers food habit. Nestle has done well to adding its  customers  loyalty  operating  as  a  market  competitors  in  its industry. Nestle  is  one  of  the  largest  food  processing  company. Their products and quality mainly includes on their experience and efficiency.  Nestle provides quality that leads to good business growth and good development.It  has  segmented  the  market  based  on  certain  clustered  preferencesdeploying multi-stage segmentation approach to meet individual requirements of  the customers. Offering brand new products would also close its old products gaps to a great extend promise satisfaction and loyalty. In our report, we contribute to make available the segmentation, target marketing and  positioning  strategy  of  Nestle  and  suggest  some recommendations based on the marketing procedure.   IMC Stratgies PROMOTION Promotion activities perform a major role in re-launching any product. Addition in target market is make sure by personal selling. It adds persons in small stores describe the benefits to important customers about importance of milk in standard  packed form. Awareness performs the most important role. They should taste housewives on many places. Because they are the main servers of such kind of  nutritional diets to  their members of family. There are many promotional methods like personal sales, advertisements, sales  promotions, public relations etc.  but the method accepted by  Nestlà © for introducing  Nestlà © UHT Milk was advertising, outside printed media for advertising like, hording board, newspaper, posters outdoor etc.  Nestlà ©Ã‚  seeing the  old  customer  of  the  imported brands  and  potentials customers via its advertising promotions. In their advertisement, Nestlà © mostly focus the small kids who are the major  Ã‚  portion of our population and milk and such kinds of  Products  are  main  requirement  of  enhancing ability in  children  that  the  reason  Nestle launched  Nesvita  Milk  product especially  designed  for  younger  children  because addition of calcium diets in  routine diet chart is main  requirement. To remind the consumers about the nestle, Nestlà © also made some special platform for retailers and hold them on t heir shops and as make difference to other milk providing companies running in the country Nestle shows always attracting messages to feels customers that always drink milk but only I  real form . RE LAUNCHING large number of  competitors Nestle takes decisions to re-launch it product with different new packing. It was an opportunity for Nestle to control the market in that a way  that it will introduce. its all the discrepancies such as  shortage, inflation based pricings which given opportunity to the competitors to control the market. BELOW THE LINE Below the line includes following  mediums of advertisement. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Direct mail to users   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Outdoor  advertising à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Through Transit   DIRECT MAIL ADVERTISING It  is  any form  of  advertising  present  directly  to  the  new comers,  this can be  through the mail, fax, online computer services, sales personnels, retailers or  other means rather than through traditional mass  media. Leaflets/ flyers Nestle has distributes many types of leaflets, which inform information about Nestle Milk products, at different outlets. Folders / brochures Nestle distributes brochures of their product to their users through internet to make them inform of new research and innovations and products. This helps nestle in adding more customers. OUTDOOR Nestle expenses a big share of  their advertisement budget on the outdoor  advertisement in Singapore, which includes   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Painted Billboards at different places à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢MMT in various locations à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Vinyl Sheets located in public places à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ They have put on different themes of them, which are presenting different situations in which people  are  using  real  water.  According  to  the  NESTLE they  perform heavy outdoor advertisement to aware people about the presence of their product due to it is a product for which consumer never pre-determined plan to purchase it so to encourage them for the purchase of Nestle Milk Products they have to place billboards.  Beside  this  they rotate  the  posters  of  their  billboards  after  some months the reason for this is that users not interest in those themes when they see it for a longer time so when they exchange them and place the new different one that create the interest among the  people. TRANSIT ADVERTISING Transit advertising is a type of public places out of private media that adding bus and taxicab  advertising  as  well  as  posters  on  transit  places, Bus  terminals,  and Display at airports .Types of  transit advertising à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Inside cards in public transports à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Outside posters on Vehicles à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Terminal  posters at various locations à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Taxi / bus walls. Nestle 2010 Creating affordable access to protein [online] Available from: Nestle 2010 Press Release [online] Available from: Vanhuele, M., Dreze, X., (2002). Measuring the Price Knowledge Shoppers Bring to the Store.Journal of Marketing. 66 (dhs), 72. Peter, J. P., Donnelly, J. H (2004).Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills. 7th ed. China: McGraw Hill Book Co. 145.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Organisational Culture and Communication in Hotel

Organisational Culture and Communication in Hotel Organisational culture To begin with, we should characterize Organizational culture. Each Organization has an extraordinary culture, the same way every individual has a one of a kind identity. Organisational culture is an arrangement of imparted suspicions, qualities and convictions that administers how individuals carry on in associations. The way of life of an association is controlled by the qualities put on an arrangement of attributes, for example, hazard introduction and tender loving care. (McLaughlin, 2003) The King and Queen Hotel core values drive the culture. Our culture influences the way we treat associates, customers, and the community which impacts all our successes. The King and Queen Hotel is committed to fair treatment of associates and to providing training and advancement opportunities to all. A simple goal of our hotel is Good Food and Good Service at a Fair Price Do whatever it takes to Take Care of the Customer. Pay phenomenal tender loving care. Take pride in their physical surroundings. Use their inventiveness to discover better approaches to address the issues of clients. The organization effectively bolsters the group and energizes partner volunteerism through a mixture of associations. At The King and Queen Hotel, the propagation of an organizations way of life has a demonstrated positive budget. To add few more culture elements like Individuals and strengthening centred, Esteem creation through advancement and change, Thoughtfulness regarding the essentials, Hands-on administration, making the best decision, Flexibility to develop and to fall flat, Responsibility and moral obligation, Accentuation on whats to come (McGuire, 2003) Leadership styles For an effective business development, as a Human Resource Director I would recommend us to have two different types of leadership styles at two different situations. The two leadership styles are Laissez-Faire Leadership Style and Bureaucratic Leadership Style. Initially I would suggest Bureaucratic Leadership Style because we as a member of king and queen hotel suites and a new resort hotel which deals with adventure packages like Private tramping, Hiking, swimming, Fishing, Mountaineering, bushwalks, quad bike exploring and science helicopter flights. So while dealing very adventures sports everything has to be done according to the set procedure or policies, If not covered by the policy referred to the next level management. This is bureaucratic style of leadership where a manager encourages his staff to follow exactly what is there in policy. This is most effective for our staff performing routine tasks over and over, staff performing tasks that required handling cash, staff that has to understand certain standards or procedures and most importantly the safety and security of both staff and the guest. (unpan1) On the other hand there is always a situation where something is not in the policy especially in hotel industry. In such cases the type of leadership changes from bureaucratic style to the Laissez-Faire Leadership Style or also known as â€Å"hands-off† style, where the managers give practically no heading and gives staff much opportunity as could be expected under the circumstances. All power or force given to the staff and them focus objectives, decide, and resolve issues all alone. This is a powerful style to utilize Staff profoundly gifted, experienced, and taught, Staff has superiority in their work and the ambition, to do it effectively all alone, outside specialists, such as staff experts, Staff reliable and experienced. This type of combined leadership style would always suit any kind of hotel and in practical life of hotel industry situations. It also suites the organisational culture stating, Do whatever it takes to Take Care of the Customer (Dwyer, 2009) 4. The boundaries when managing an individual structure another nation are, Oral Communication or verbal Communication where individuals for distinctive nations have an alternate barrier and they would have a barrier in talking the barrier talked in the organization, they would for the most part utilize an interpreters and if not all that it would prompt misconception. Written Communication is likewise viewed as a barrier as the style or layout utilized as a part of a nation would vary from nation to nation. Semantics is another issue that that they would confront by not getting a specific nations jargons. Non Verbal Communication from society to culture and every sign would have distinctive implications when contrasted with another nation (Spinks Wells, 1997). As indicated by Santos and Rozier (2007) individuals from different social situations who correspond with an individual from an alternate social foundation too is considered as intercultural correspondence. By and large errors happen with individuals for different social foundations, larger part of the misconceptions are expected absence of information as to the verbal and the non-verbal setting while imparting. As indicated by Ting-Toomey in 1999 (as cited in Santos et al., 2007) intercultural issues consist of Our discernments by for the most part stereotyping individuals The different verbal and non-verbal social practices Assumptions those individuals from the same society are alike Personal inclination and individual objectives Protecting admiration of individual or aggregately Lauring (2011) states that the regular parts of society are not quite the same as country to country, it should be held under thought that the communication methodology can fluctuate in the meeting of an individual from another country in an authoritative circumstance. The hitch to intercultural correspondence is not generally mistaken assumptions; thought must be given to the individual and associations plans in a common association relationship. Gudykunst (1997) said in his article that the way individuals are raised is the way they have a tendency to respond in social circumstances while conveying is general inclination. He additionally says the different social contrasts that are in view of the childhood and the way of life that they have originated from plays a variable on their own credits as for social standards. Independence – Collectivism, Values, Personality introduction, Self-Construals, Uncertainty introduction and Masculinity- Femininity. (Varner, 2000) Varner (2000) built up a model in which three key segments are exhibit to be specific intercultural procedure, communication method and business technique. By joining Intercultural system and Intercultural Business communication, it remembers that individuals need to be made mindful about individuals for different cultures. They have to be mindful of the business culture and as a large portion of the way of life dont impart the same way (Varner, 2000) . I would implement (Varner, 2000) intercultural methodology because as The Mt.Taranaki resort is new property, the staff of distinctive nations would be prepared in business method and all the staff would likewise take in the culture procedure so an expert accord is kept up at all times at the hotel. Since the hierarchical atmosphere in the hotel is as of now a learning culture, I would urge all representatives to help all the staff who think that it hard to impart because of their social foundation. Steady criticism will be given on their execution which would be imparted to them in a negative valuable input in the event that they oblige it and in the event that they have performed the errand successfully they will be persuaded by being recognized. CONFLICT RESOLUTION POLICY Mt.Taranaki resort committed to prompt and reasonable determination of all debate of any nature which may emerge in the work environment. This approach oversees all parts of vocation question determination, including all lawful cases that the worker may have against the organization, up to and including release, and any cases of separation based upon race, colour, sex, disability, religion, national origin, age or whatever other secured attribute, or any cases emerging under any government, state, nearby law or any normal law. This conflict resolution method is a state of job with Mt.Taranaki resort. Problem Solving: Mt.Taranaki resort as an organisation puts stock in clear and open communication, and encourages staff to talk straightforwardly with their supervisor and associates and the other way around. On the off chance that a conflict does arise, it is prescribed that the individual attempt to determine the issue with those straightforwardly included. The representative may additionally decide to include his or her manager if important. In talking about the conflict please recall that the organizations privacy approach still applies. In the event that after this talk the representative or supervisor feels the issue is still not determined, he/she may ask for a meeting with the following level manager and Human Resources Coordinator as relevant. In case the representative lean towards an individual meeting with the following level manager or whatever other senior administration staff the administrator will be advised. By investigating the issue in an expert and valuable style it ought to be conceivable to discover a suitable approach to determine the issue. Complaint Resolution Procedure: Mt.Taranaki resort as an organisation will act conveniently if issues do happen and all people, whether staff or management, will be treated with decency, admiration, and consistency. All representatives are urged to present any protestations or suggestions managing security, wellbeing measures, legitimate working conditions, execution evaluations, teach and reasonable administration hones, without apprehension of response. Any question, contentions or recommendations should first be taken care of between the staff and his or her prompt manager, unless they are not sufficiently kidding to warrant intercession by the following level director or other individual from the senior administration group. Staffs who have not got an answer inside five business days of the circumstances that offered ascent to the circumstance has the privilege to bring the matter to the consideration of the following level administrator. The Human Resources Director will be educ ated of the matter. That individual will audit the circumstances inside five business days and will counsel the Human Resources as proper. Dissension ought to be in composing and incorporate all important circumstances. The representative and manager will get an answer or a composed answer from the Department Manager inside five more business days. On the off chance that the representative is not fulfilled by the reaction, he or she has the privilege to talk about the issue with the Executive Director. On the off chance that the Executive Director cant satisfy the representatives desires and the contention endures, the worker may choose to bring the matter, in composing, to the seat of the Board of Directors and the Executive Director will be advised. The Board of Directors choice will be last. (, 2011) Works Cited Dwyer, J. (2009). The Business Communication Handbook. Pearson Education Australia. Gudykunst, W. B. (1997, August). Cultural Variability in Communication: An Introduction. Cultural Variability in Communication: An Introduction, 24(4), 327-348. Lauring, J. (2011, July). INTERCULTURAL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION The Social Organizing of Interaction in International Encounters. Journal of Business Communication, 48(3), 231-255. McGuire, S. (2003). Retrieved 2015, from McLaughlin, J. (2003). Retrieved April 2015, from (2011, September). Retrieved from Santos, C. A., Rozier, S. (2007). Intercultural Communication Competence and Conflict Negotiation Strategies: Perceptions of Park Staff and Diverse Park Users. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 25(1), 22-49. Spinks, N., Wells, B. (1997). Intercultural communication: a key element in global strategies. Career Development International, 2(6), 287-292. unpan1. (n.d.). Retrieved 2015, from Varner, I. I. (2000, January ). The Theoretical Foundation for intercuitural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model. The Journal of Business Communication, 37(1), 39-57.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Which Groups Pose an Urban Terrorist Threat :: essays research papers fc

WHICH GROUPS POSE AN URBAN TERRORIST THREAT There is not one particular group that poses an urban terrorist threat as long as the spread of the message is the only goal of the movement. Many organizations wish to gain the understanding of â€Å"outsider Americans† and try to reach as many sympathizers as possible for their movement. The problem arises when an organization seeks to gain understanding or recognition through force. An organization becomes an actual threat when they start to build up arms, purchase biological or chemical weapon supplies, or cast threats to surrounding areas. The most dangerous type of organization, which poses the greatest urban terrorist threat, is the radical doomsday organization.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Branch Dividian compound was an example of a doomsday organization that was building up arms for an attack in 1993. Branch Davidians believed that they are God’s chosen people and were preparing for the end of the world (John Mann). Although David Koresh, along with his organization, had not began to attack outside of its Waco Compound in Texas; the buildup of arms demonstrated the threat. The right action was taken to control group, although many have complained about the result of the government’s movement. During 1995 the Japanese experienced what could happen if a doomsday organization practices extreme measures to gain the audience of its fellow citizens. Members of the Aum Supreme Truth (Aum Shinrikyo) dropped sarin gas in the tunnels of a Tokyo subway system in March of 1995 killing 12 and injuring up to 6,000 more. The group’s leader Shoko Asahara (AKA Chizuo Matsumoto) was trying to forcefully fulfill his own prophecies in order to gain the attention of the people (Kaplan, 12). The same type of ill-fated incident could have been planned and executed by the Branch Davidians had they been allowed to continue to operate, and probably one day build a biological or chemical weapon of mass destruction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Timothy McVeigh was said to have been acting out of revenge for the Waco Compound seizure and attack by bombing the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City exactly 2 years later on April 19, 1995. There is little evidence that McVeigh was a member of any organization, and had only attended a few militia meetings (Grosscup, 117). The fact that the doomsday organization was preparing for the end of the world could very well have lead them to take an offensive action, just like McVeighs’, to facilitate their goals.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

John Gotti Essay -- Essays Papers

John Gotti If ever there was an incubator for crime it was the Italian Harlem tenements of the South Bronx. In one of those crowded dirty apartments, a young John Gotti seeked an impoverished existence with his parents and eleven sisters and brothers. His father rarely worked and then, only at menial jobs, risking the money that the family did have on gambling. Eventually the family moved to central Brooklyn, which was known as East New York. In East New York, for a poor boy like John Gotti with nothing in the way of prospects, the Cosa Nostra represented something to which he could realistic aspire to gain the power and respect he craved. He started as many young boys did, running errands for the gangsters, molding himself into a young bully with a future. His first major incident with the police occurred when he tried to steal a cement mixer and it fell on his feet, an injury that affected his gait for the rest of his life. He quit school at sixteen and rose to leadership in a local street gang of thieves called the Fulton-Rockaway Boys, named after two streets in their neighborhood. At an early age he exerted his bad temper, dominance and readiness to engage in fistfights. These were just the right characteristics to develop his potential as a Mafia boss. In the mid-1960's, Gotti's boss Carmine Fatico moved his headquarters out to Ozone Park near JFK Airport. Gotti, his brothers, Angelo and Willie Boy became relatively successful hijackers. That is, until they got caught in 1968 and landed in prison. In 1972, when Gotti got out of prison and went back to Ozone Park, the headquarters had been imaginatively renamed the Bergin Hunt and Fish Club. Two important things happened in his life to significantly lift his status in the Cosa Nostra. The first was that his boss Carmine Fatico faced a loansharking indictment, so Gotti became Fatico's man on the street to keep him informed about what was happening at a grass-roots level. The second was that Gotti met Neil Dellacroce, an important under boss to Carl Gambino. Neil accomplished Carlo's violent dirty work from a headquarters in Little Italy's Mulberry Street called the Ravenite Social Club. Neil, who was disappointed that his only son Armond became a drug addict, saw in Gotti a young protà ©gà © who was a younger version of his own violent, macho self. Lik... ...h as traffickers and as users. As a result, they have become more greedy, selfish, more violent. Many have chosen to forsake omerta, the traditional vow of silence and turn in other family members to save their own skins." Mr.Lombardo himself stated that there were no men of honor anymore. He states: "It has changed since I first joined in the 1940's, especially in the last few years with the growth of narcotics. Greed is causing younger members to go into narcotics without the knowledge of the families. These younger members lack the discipline and respect that made "This Thing" as strong as it once was." Bibliography: 1. Ianni, Francis. Black Mafia. New York : Simon and Schuster, 1972 2. Kelley, Robert J. â€Å"Organized Crime : Past , Present, and Future.† USA Today July 1994 3. Mueller, Tom. â€Å"Cosa Nostra† The New Republic 15 April. 1996: 17-18 4. Reuter, Peter. â€Å"The Decline of the American Mafia† Public Interest Summer 1995 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Richard Wright :: essays research papers

“The Man Who Was Almost a Man';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In “The Man Who Was Almost a Man'; by Richard Wright, the main character Dave expresses his needs to be acknowledged as an adult. Yet he also exhibits his immaturity and the fact that he is not yet an adult and can not handle adult problems. His actions lead him into trouble that proves the fact that he is still an adolescent who can not handle problems of the adult world. The characters around Dave make him feel like he is still a child. His wants to purchase a gun to feel more powerful. In the beginning of this story, Dave talks about how a gun would change the way people acted towards him. He feels that if he owns this power, the men in the fields who work with him will have more respect for him, and his mother will start treating him as an adult. Dave feels as if he is surrounded by people who treat him as a child and he does not like this at all. “You ain’t nothing but a boy. You don’t need a gun.'; This statement said by Joe, is the main reason why Dave truly wants a gun, to feel independent. Even though Dave wants to be acknowledged as an adult, his actions are very immature and childlike. The act of cornering his mother for a gun is one good example of immaturity. Dave feels as though he can not ask his dad for the gun for fear of rejection, a perfect example of immaturity. Daves defiance to his mother’s rules is another example of immaturity. Dave’s mother agrees to allow Dave to buy the gun as long as he promises to bring it straight to her. He agrees to this, yet he does not go along with her wish. The next morning, Dave set out to the fields early to shoot his gun. He ends up accidentally killing Mr. Hawkins mule, Jenny. The way Dave goes about dealing with this problem is childish. He panics and decides to lie about what really did happen. He makes up a story which he knows nobody will believe, yet he feels that if everyone does in fact believe him he can avoid his problems more easily.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Government and Not for Profit Accounting

NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 13 2 Not-for-profit organisations Key points Many not-for-profit organisations (NFPs) feel they are poorly understood by government and the general public. Pressures to be more efficient have seen overhead spending reduced at considerable detriment to effectiveness and improved resource allocation over time (allocative efficiency). The sector is diverse, but NFPs display some common behavioural patterns: – Whereas the behaviour of for-profit business is driven mostly by their desire for profits, the behaviour of NFPs is driven mostly by their mission or communitypurpose. Demonstrated commitment to their community-purpose underpins support for their activities, whether by members for member-serving NFPs, or by donors and government who provide funding for community-serving NFPs. – Processes, often highly participatory, matter for NFPs because they provide value to the volunteers and members, and because of their central importance to mainta ining trusting relationships that form the basis for effective service delivery. – Control can be a major motivating factor for the managers of NFPs.While generally motivated by altruism, NFP management also benefits personally from their role when it confers status or power, builds their skills and contacts, and where it improves the environment for their other activities. These characteristics of NFPs have implications for the drivers of efficiency and effectiveness: – Processes that appear messy and inefficient to outsiders can be essential for effective delivery of services, especially those requiring engagement with clients who face disadvantages and are wary of government and for-profit providers.They can also be important to attract and retain volunteers, the involvement of which can be valued as much for the engagement outcomes as for replacing the need for paid labour. – It is possible that, for some managers, ‘doing’ can take precedence o ver ‘achieving’. Unless NFP boards are able to act decisively, such behaviour can undermine efficiency and effectiveness and threaten the sustainability of an NFP. – While greater scale and sharing of support services can improve production efficiency, NFPs can be reluctant to merge or collaborate where other interests might be eroded or where the purchase of support services adds to overheads. continued on next page) 14 NOT-FOR-PROFIT Key points (continued) Community-serving NFPs may lack adequate feedback mechanisms on their effectiveness (or lack thereof) as clients are often grateful for the assistance. This contrasts strongly with member-serving organisations, particularly small grass roots organisations, where member satisfaction is paramount to survival. While historically Australia fits in the ‘liberal’ social origin category (where government social spending is low and NFP activity is relatively large), since the 1970s government funding o f the sector has grown.From the 1980s, this has increasingly been under competitive allocation arrangements, with greater use of the sector to deliver government funded services. More recently, social enterprise is being seen as a way to harness network governance to address social issues. Along with demographic, ethnic and cultural changes (such as increasing environmental awareness), these forces are increasing demand for NFP activities. In responding to rising demand, NFPs report constraints arising from growing regulation and contract requirements, and challenges in accessing funding, finance, and skilled workers. ? Government can assist in addressing these constraints to facilitate sector growth and development; nevertheless the sector remains responsible for its own future. The diversity of the not-for-profit (NFP) sector makes any attempt to describe how NFP organisations (NFPs) behave challenging at best, and quite likely impossible. Nevertheless, such a description is impo rtant as one of the complaints from the sector is that government, and to a lesser extent business, fail to adequately understand the sector.This is reflected in both government and business expressing puzzlement over the reluctance of many NFPs to merge or collaborate, and more generally, what they see as resistance to change. The general public too, has conceptions about the NFP sector, and perhaps illusions about what is required to plan and deliver effective relief and preventive services. This is well illustrated in the resistance to spending on overheads: If there is any single issue that vexes managers and trustees of charitable foundations the world over, it is undoubtedly that of overhead expenses.The case against spending overhead dollars is as simple as it can be: every dollar that a foundation expends on overhead expenses is a dollar that it cannot spend on grants. Overhead expenses, therefore are leeches upon grantmaking. The case for spending overhead dollars is rather more complicated. (Orosz 2009) This chapter provides a general model of how NFPs make decisions on what they do and, importantly, how they go about it. It aims to shed light on the drivers of efficiency and effectiveness in the sector.This provides a segue into sector development and the question of the role of government. This chapter argues that this role is limited to providing an appropriately supportive operating environment, NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 15 investing in NFP activities that have considerable public benefit, and governments’ use of NFPs to deliver services. As a number of submissions noted, it is important for the sector not to become reliant on government: The Community/NFP sector †¦ is crucial to holding the government and market to account, and ensuring that they act legally and fairly to all.There are dangers he identified in any too close a collaboration between the sectors as critical roles are diminished, if their independence is reduced to in terdependence. The results can be an undermining of democratic balance of interests. (Women’s Electoral Lobby Australia Inc. , sub. DR241, p. 3, referring to the work of Claus Offe) 2. 1 Are not-for-profit organisations different? NFPs are driven by their ‘community-purpose’, which may focus on their members, targeted groups in the community (often the disadvantaged) or, more broadly, the ‘common-good’.In production, NFPs care about how (process) as well as what (activities) they do. And in management, those making the decisions often care deeply about the control they have over both process and choice of activities. It is this combination of community-purpose and concern about process and managerial control that characterises NFPs behaviour. One way to think about how NFPs operate is summarised in figure 2. 1. Processes that are participatory, inclusive, quality focused and accessible are central as they: engender trust and confidence in the organi sation, enhancing the reach and quality of the activities undertaken ? facilitate access to resources from multiple stakeholders including volunteer workers, as well as access to funding and in-kind resources, as NFPs can provide value to those making these contributions build the capacity and capabilities of staff, volunteers, members and clients for effective engagement over time, including their knowledge and ability to influence the design of future activities. These ‘quality’ processes contribute to achieving the outcomes of the NFP, including what might be incidental outcomes such as improved community connections.In some areas of activity, process, in particular for maintaining trust, can be critical to achieving outcomes. Trust and continuity of relationships is essential. It is the establishment of trust through the continuity of staff and service provision that builds the basis from which change can happen. †¦ [The] degree of trust rises with extent of t rustworthiness of information about the trustee. It is this element of trust where the NFP sector has an advantage over the for profit sector and why the capacity to deliver such programs is as strong as it is. (SDN Children’s Services, sub. 60, pp. 10-11) 16 NOT-FOR-PROFIT Billis and Gennerster (1998) argue that NFPs have a comparative advantage in delivering services where the motivation to address disadvantage, and knowledge of and sensitivity to client needs, are in scarce supply. In NFPs there is often a blurring of stakeholder roles, reducing the gap between clients and those delivering services, and between workers and management. Figure 2. 1 A schema of how not-for-profit organisations operate The bottom half of figure 2. 1 emphasises the importance of process as a motivating factor for management.NFPs are usually established by people who want to do something that is not being done or do it in a different way. People who take on the responsibility of managing an NFP are motivated not only by their belief in the community-purpose (often altruistic motivations) but also by their own role and how it contributes to their wellbeing. Whether their role confers status, power, builds skills and contacts, improves the environment for their other activities or provides self-fulfilment from engagement in a meaningful activity, this motivation needs to be satisfied for volunteer, and even paid, managers to remain committed to the organisation.Further, donors are increasingly looking for these types of ‘returns’ on their investments in NFPs in addition to achievement of the community-purpose. At an organisational level, sufficient stakeholders (donors, workers including volunteers, members, and clients) need to be satisfied by the outcomes achieved and/or by the process for the organisation to remain viable. Like for-profit business, NFPs can ‘fail’ and they will fail if sufficient stakeholders lose interest. If clients NOT-FOR-PRO FIT ORGANISATIONS 17 find their problems permanently solved, and the services of the NFP are no longer needed, this is indeed a good thing.At a sector level, failure of some NFPs, evolution of others, and establishment of new NFPs is just part of a healthy renewal process. Sector-wide, inclusive and participatory processes reflect and contribute to social capital – the relationships, understandings and social conventions that form an important part of the mediating environment that shapes economic and social opportunities. NFP advocacy, education of citizens, enabling of engagement in civic processes, and the creation of opportunities for connections work together to form a healthy civil society.Consequently the extent of NFP activity is often taken as an indicator of the health of society (Putnam, Leonardi and Nannetti 1993; PC 2003) The major differences in behaviour between for-profit and NFP organisations are nicely captured by Collins (2005). His assessment is replicated below in table 2. 1. Table 2. 1 Major differences between the business and social sector Issue Business Sector Social sector Accountability Primarily responsible to stakeholders Primarily responsible to constituents (e. g. disadvantaged children and their families) and myriad supporters or stakeholdersDefining and measuring success Widely agreed-upon financial metrics of performance Money is both an input (a means to success) and an output (a measure of success) Fewer widely agreed-upon metrics of performance Money is only an input, not an output Performance relative to mission, not financial returns, is the primary measure of success Focus Doing things right (efficiency) Competition to deliver the best products Doing the right things (effectiveness a) Collaboration to deliver the best outcomes Leadership/ Governance Governance structure and hierarchy relatively clear and straightforwardConcentrated and clear executive power often substituted for leadership Governance structures of ten have more components and inherent ambiguity More diffuse and less clear executive power with leadership more prevalent Talent Often have substantial resources to attract and retain talent Can more easily get the wrong people ‘off the bus’ for poor performance Often lack the resources to acquire and retain talent Tenure systems and volunteer dynamics can complicate getting the wrong people ‘off the bus’ Access to capital Efficient capital markets that connect to the profit mechanismResults attract capital resources which in turn fuel greater results, and so on No efficient capital markets to channel resources systematically to those who deliver the best results a This refers to both effectiveness (did it work? ), and to allocative efficiency (was it the right thing to do? ). Source: Collins (2005). 18 NOT-FOR-PROFIT 2. 2 Implications for efficiency and effectiveness The terms of reference refer to exploring ways to improve the efficiency and effectivenes s of the NFP sector. What constitutes efficiency and effectiveness varies across the different types of NFPs.The importance of process, and management control over process, has implications for efficiency and effectiveness of NFPs. So too, does the commitment to a specific community-purpose. Some NFPs have a different conception of efficiency and effectiveness or may eschew such notions altogether. These NFPs have a right to exist and, providing they cause no harm, should be left to do what they do in the way they like to do it. However, where public funding is involved or donors seek to achieve the best returns on their gifts, efficiency and effectiveness are central to maximising community wellbeing.It is important to distinguish between efficiency in production (how well inputs are turned into outputs) and efficiency in allocation (putting resources to the uses that deliver the best outcomes for the community). While both are important, it is the latter, provided the activities a re effective, that matters most for wellbeing, especially over time, a point supported by the Smith Family: †¦ the nonprofit sector should first ensure that they are focused on ‘doing the right things’ before consideration of how well they are doing them. sub. DR204, p. 4) Despite this, the attention paid by governments and donors to overhead costs as an indicator of an organisation’s worthiness drives a fixation with production efficiency. This can constrain investment in planning and evaluation which are essential for maintaining and improving effectiveness and efficiency. At an organisational level, cost-effectiveness in achieving the NFP’s communitypurpose is the most appropriate objective for managers.This assessment can be difficult as the results of social investment usually take time to eventuate and are often the product of forces in addition to the activity under scrutiny. Nevertheless, measurement challenges should not be allowed to divert attention from what matters — designing and delivering activities that deliver the desired outcomes (and no unexpected nasties) at least cost. This frees up resources to do more. Selecting which mix of activities gives the greatest benefit to the community is the ultimate allocation challenge.NFPs, through their advocacy and other avenues of influence, play an important role in guiding the selection of activities. Donors influence allocation through their giving. Government decisions on tax concessions can influence this allocation to some extent, however, their influence over allocation is greatest for direct funding decisions. Unlike the market for goods and services, where prices serve as an allocation mechanism, these forces provide only an indirect discipline on ensuring that the allocation of resources is optimal for the community.NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 19 Prevention is a good example of the allocation challenge. There is almost universal agreement that prevention is better than cure, and generally costs far less. Nevertheless, as it is difficult to demonstrate the value of avoiding a cost that would otherwise be imposed by a problem, prevention tends to attract less donor support. This issue is compounded by the exclusion of prevention in the definition of charity as applied for deductable gift recipient status. Figure 2. reflects the different roles that the NFP management, donors and government play in driving efficiency and effectiveness. While to some extent these stakeholders act like consumers in imposing discipline on NFPs to be efficient and effective, there are some significant differences from the market disciplines that drive efficiency and effectiveness in the (for-profit) business sector. The drivers of efficiency and effectiveness in NFPs Many NFPs argue that they operate on ‘the smell of an oily rag’, stretching their resources to the maximum.While often true, the importance of process can make NFPs appear messy and inefficient to outsiders, and even to some of the insiders. However, process can be central to the ability of a NFP to garner resources and deliver activities effectively. On the cost side, more participatory and inclusive processes can reduce the volume and/or quality of outputs by absorbing resources and slowing down delivery. This is observed in activity development and implementation that requires more one-on-one service delivery, time and resources to support participation in ecision making and greater individualisation of the service. Yet, on the benefit side, it may be these processes that give NFPs an advantage in trustworthiness or network governance1 that make them more effective, especially in the delivery of some human services. While a trade-off between production efficiency and quality is not unique to the NFP sector, NFPs often place a relatively higher weight on quality. In some cases quality, including quality of process, is strongly linked to effectiveness of t he activity, but in other cases the ‘doing’ can take precedence over the ‘achieving’.Where these processes are central to the governance of the organisation and part of the value it provides to its volunteers and members, processes should be seen as essential outputs for the sustainability of the NFP. However, as NFPs grow and become more ‘professional’ in their management, this type of ‘value’ from process tends to diminish. 1 Network governance is the relationships between organisations and individuals that is characterised by organic or informal structures, in contrast to bureaucratic structures of contractual relationships. 20 NOT-FOR-PROFITFigure 2. 2 Efficiency and effectiveness of not-for-profit organisations: drivers and constraints NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 21 Production efficiency tends to improve with scale, but mergers and growth can detract from valued processes, particularly in smaller organisations. NFPs can also be reluctant to collaborate to share support services such as back office and fund raising, possibly reflecting the transaction costs associated with establishing joint approaches. There are relatively few intermediaries offering these types of services to NFPs in Australia.This may be due to reluctance of NFPs to spend scarce funds on support activities thus offering little opportunity for such services to develop. Over time, efficient production requires investments in skills, capital, planning, research and relationships that allow the ‘best’ (defined by quality as well as quantity) outputs for the level of inputs. Many NFPs would agree that they face constraints on increasing their production efficiency due to difficulties accessing finance and in freeing up resources to invest in training and enabling technologies such as management systems.These constraints can create a tension between delivering now and being efficient in the longer term. Unlike businesses, where the financial bottom line is a good measure of their effectiveness, NFPs have to rely on other signals. NFP managers may resist honest feedback on effectiveness, or may, as with some donors, regard evaluation as wasted money. Member serving organisations are more likely to get direct feedback from their membership on how they are performing where members can ‘vote with their feet’.Client serving organisations, on the other hand, are less likely to get negative feedback especially where clients have no alternative services available. The community development literature of the 1970s stressed the value of ‘grass roots organisations’ as vested interests of members should result in the best or optimal selection of, and resource allocation to, activities. However, for larger organisations, the allocation of resources to the different activities will usually reflect management’s views on the contribution these activities make to their community-purpose.If donors and government funders want to influence the allocation of resources tensions can arise even in situations where they have provided the resources. Philanthropy is an important mechanism for allocating resources to organisations and activities that donors see as providing the greatest value for their gift. Given that wealthier individuals have greater ‘giving’ power, it is their (or their foundation managers’) assessment that tends to dominate this allocation. Similarly, large businesses also have the potential to influence activities undertaken by NFPs.The productivity of an organisation improves when it raises the efficiency and effectiveness of its resource use in the short term and when it invests wisely in resources that enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the longer term. This will improve the productivity of the sector, especially when other NFPs follow suit. 22 NOT-FOR-PROFIT However, the productivity of the sector also improves when resour ces shift to those organisations that make better use of resources in terms of their contribution to the wellbeing of the broader community (PC 2008).These issues are explored further in chapter 9. The central message here is that NFPs may face significant resource constraints to achieving efficiency and effectiveness. More difficult to address is lack of incentive for some NFPs to minimise costs in the short run, or to invest in finding out how effective their actions are. Indeed, such actions may reduce the return to the NFP management if they interfere with valued processes. In addition, at a sector level, pursuit of community-purpose does not guarantee efficient allocation of resources.In addressing these constraints and challenges, it is useful to understand what drives sector growth and development. 2. 3 What drives sector growth and development? The NFP sector in a broader context The term ‘third sector’ distinguishes the NFP sector, the for-profit business secto r, and the government on the basis of where production occurs. The household sector also engages in production and is ultimately the source of labour and capital. Focusing just on production of goods and services, expansion of production in one sector by necessity reduces production in another sector if resources are fully employed.It is this conceptualisation that views NFPs as undertaking activities that the business sector does not find profitable to undertake, governments lack a mandate to provide, and households cannot undertake alone. In reality the picture (summarised in figure 2. 3) is far more complex: Government engages NFPs, for-profit business, and households (for example, through carer payments) in delivery of goods and services that government funds; consequently there can be some competition for government business.Similarly, the sectors compete for household resources and, in some situations, for markets, a classic example being the market for second hand clothing. Government, for-profit business and households recognise value in community and other activities provided by NFPs (complementarity) and provide resources (funding, in-kind resources and volunteers) to support these activities – some are of direct benefit to the funders, such as professional associations and children’s sporting activities some are only of indirect benefit to funders, such as community welfare activities, and environmental protection. NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 23 Figure 2. 3 Interactions between not-for-profit organisations, government, business and households NFP/Business intersect Trading activities for member benefits Trading activities for revenue to support community-purpose Professional associations NFP/Government intersect Delivery of government funded services Investment in community through NFPs Political parties Households Clients Volunteers Philanthropy Workers Not-for-profitServices to clients/community Services to members Management oppo rtunities Innovation Research Government Support NFPs through regulatory environment direct funding indirect funding (concessions) Influenced by NFPs advocacy for policy changes community expectations for services Business Support NFPs via philanthropy Compete with NFPs for government contracts and ‘member’ services Benefit from NFP impact on the mediating environment Partnering with NFPs to achieve social outcomes Social capital Legal & judicial system Market rules Mediating Environment Natural Environment Governments, for-profit businesses and households sit within a mediating environment with institutional, legal and market rules and conventions and social capital. While the product of history and the natural environment, this mediating environment is not static, but evolves over time as a result of the activities and processes in all four sectors. The mediating environment can both constrain and facilitate the development of the NFP sector. The likely relative scale and roles of the NFP sector depend on the mediating environment and the historical levels of competition and complementarity between 24 NOT-FOR-PROFIT he sectors. The view that NFPs passively fill the gap between what the market delivers and what governments have a mandate to fund is too simplistic; rather the role of NFPs reflects the inherent social compact that exists in a country. Social origins theory, developed by Salamon and Anheier (1997), points to different ‘historical moorings’ where the roles of government and the third sector reflect the ‘constellation of historical forces’. It identifies four types of non-profit regimes: statist, where government social spending is low and non-profit activity is small (such as in Japan) ocial democratic, where government social spending is high and non-profit activity is low (as in Scandinavian countries) corporatist, where government social spending is high and non-profits have a large economic size (Fran ce and Germany) liberal, where government social spending is low and non-profit economic activity is large (the US and UK) (Anheier 2005). The scale and scope of the NFP sector depends on the demand for the activities that the sector is well placed to provide, competition for supplying these activities and constraints on the sector’s ability to respond to these demands and to compete for resources.Sector development is not a defined pathway, rather it is the response of the sector to changes in the nature and scale of demand. The ability of the sector to respond depends on the constraints it faces, including the extent to which NFPs resist change. The evolution of government support for the sector in Australia Historically, Australia fits into the ‘liberal’ category, where accessing and funding human services has traditionally been the responsibility of the household. Households purchased these services from the for-profit business sector andNFP (often mutuals e stablished for the purpose). NFP ‘community social welfare organisations’ supplied services to those who lacked a capacity to pay. An implicit bargain between for-profit business and government on industry support underpinned paying workers a ‘living wage’ and workers accepting responsibility for purchasing their own human services. The 1970s saw a major shift toward a welfare state with government taking on a greater role in funding human services. Much of this expansion was achieved through increased public support for NFP service delivery (Smyth 2008).In the 1980s and 1990s, governments moved to a greater reliance on competitive market mechanisms for allocating resources and driving production efficiency. Described as ‘new public management’ this saw the privatisation of government NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 25 owned enterprises across a range of industries starting with banking in the 1980s and moving through to utilities, and the applica tion of a competitive neutrality test to government trading enterprises (Banks 2008).Despite governments moving away from producing goods and services, community expectations of what government will fund appear to have risen. Reflecting these two forces, there has been a shift to greater utilisation of segments of the NFP sector by governments for the delivery of services (Lyons 2009b). Government has provided indirect support to the sector in the form of tax concessions from before federation. The access to concessions varies across the jurisdictions, but most are based on a common law definition of charity (established in England in 1891 in Pemsel’s case).The Extension of Charitable Purpose Act 2004, sought to clarify that certain purposes (childcare, self-help groups and closed/contemplative religious orders) were indeed charitable. More recently, there has been a growing interest in the ‘third sector’ as an alternative way of organising production and the all ocation of resources (see for example, Blond 2009; Shergold 2009a). NFPs are seen as able to harness network governance to address social issues that markets and government cannot (Barraket 2008).Interest in alternatives to market and government allocation is also seen in the increase in philanthropy (chapter 7), the rising participation in volunteering (chapter 10), and growing engagement by businesses with NFPs (chapter 13). Demand growth and supply constraints on the sector As explored in detail in chapter 4, the sector has grown rapidly over the last eight years. This can be seen as arising from growth in demand, a significant share of which is related to the expansion of government funded services (chapter 12).Demographic factors have also played a role, for example, the baby-boom echo has seen a growth in school-aged children and with this demand for children’s activities. Similarly, the ageing of the population and early retirement has created a demand for more leisure and cultural activities. Increasing ethnic diversity of the population has generated new niches for NFPs both in community services and in member services. The ability of the sector to respond to these growing and changing demands depends on the constraints it faces on supply.Consultations and submissions identified four major sources of constraint on NFPs’ ability to grow and develop: Regulatory constraints: For unincorporated associations there are few legal requirements. However, this also limits the scope for activities that require a legal form (such as owning assets, contracting for services and purchasing insurance). NFPs that have a legal form face varying compliance costs, and can 26 NOT-FOR-PROFIT face difficulty with evolving their legal form and with changing their community-purpose. These issues are discussed in chapter 6. Contracting constraints: These apply to NFPs receiving financial support from government for their activities, either in the form of grants or through government purchasing of their services (although not always with full funding). While the funding allows for expansion of NFP’s activities, it generally comes with strings attached. These can include restrictions on other activities, but are more generally related to the delivery of the activity, including specification of quality standards and staff and volunteer qualifications. These issues are the subject of chapters 11 and 12. ? Funding and financing constraints: Unlike for-profit business, where demand comes with funds to purchase the goods and services, many NFPs face demand that is independent of the funding stream. To meet demand, especially in community serving NFPs, NFPs seek funding from government and donations from households and business. Many also look to generate income from their activities. In the absence of price as a rationing mechanism, demand will generally exceed supply, and many community-serving NFPs have to ration their services in some w ay.Member-serving NFPs face less of a funding constraint, but like community-serving NFPs, may face financing constraints which make it difficult to make investments such as in information systems, housing or training for staff. NFPs without a proven cash flow to service debt, or substantial assets for collateral, often have difficulty accessing capital markets. This matter is taken up in chapter 7. Skill constraints: While access to paid labour is strongly influenced by the ability to pay competitive salaries, and hence funding, NFPs are also concerned about access to skills.Many areas of NFP activities are becoming ‘professionalised’, resulting in a shift to paid employment to attract qualified workers. This can complement or crowd out volunteer labour. The former situation arises where employees (and their skills) add value to the volunteer experience. It is only in community services that crowding out of volunteers appears to be apparent, for reasons not well under stood. In some sectors, notably community services, skill shortages are a sector-wide issue related to low wages and lack of career paths.Boards too need to develop their governance skills as their tasks have become more complex with delivery of government funded services and demands by donors, members and clients for greater accountability. BRI Ferrier (2009) found that most NFP failures stem from inexperienced, weak or sympathetic supervisory groups. These issues are considered further in chapter 10. NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 27 Is there a role for government in sector growth and development? Government plays a considerable role in shaping the environment in which NFPs operate, irectly through its regulation of the sector, and indirectly in the ‘social contract’ it has with the community. As discussed above, the latter has shifted from a living wage based arrangement to a social safety net, providing income support to those not able to work or whose wage income is below that required to be selffinancing. In addition, a number of human services are funded by the government on a (non-income tested) needs basis, including health care and disability services. NFPs provide many of these services, some in competition with government or forprofit providers (for example, hospital care and employment services).Some of these government funded services are contestable only between NFPs, while others are delivered by sole providers. The choice by government to involve NFPs as providers involves consideration by government of value for money. Discussed in detail in chapter 12, value for money considerations should include: cost-effectiveness of service delivery — and the extent that this depends on the development of relationships with clients complementarity or joint-production with other services — which can enhance client wellbeing beyond that arising from the particular service being funded pillovers (positive and negative) associated with the service delivery — these arise as a by-product that affects others in the community, such as the utilisation of a community centre as a base for services for other groups, and the benefits that flow on from improvements in the lives of individuals as a result of their engagement with NFPs sustainability of the service delivery and/or client relationship, where the longterm effectiveness depends on the continued presence of the provider.Governments also invest in NFP activities through grants, and provide indirect support through tax and other concessions. In providing this support, governments usually look for ‘additionality’ — that is, the government funding attracts more resources into NFP activities than would otherwise have been the case. The net value added of expanding NFP activity in this way comes from a combination of greater direct benefits of these activities and higher spillovers than the alternative use of the resources. For househo ld donations, this alternative use might be savings or onsumption. For NFPs, the opportunity cost comes with the diversion of their resources into the activities for which the government provides support instead of other (preferred) activities. In these ways government both increases the funding available to the sector and influences its allocation across the various activities. 28 NOT-FOR-PROFIT Governments, especially state and territory governments, may also take a proactive role in sector development. In part this is related to their utilisation of the sector for service delivery.Government investments may be to strengthen the quality and/or financial viability of the NFP service providers, or to increase the number of potential providers and hence provide greater choice for clients and/or government agencies in tendering. But investment in the sector is also related to the role it plays in providing social capital and, in turn as discussed above, the value that this provides to wellbeing. This report looks at the role of government as a regulator of, investor in and procurer of NFP services and activities.It also considers the role of government as a facilitator of philanthropy and the engagement of other sectors with NFPs. These roles differ across the segments of the NFP sector, and for many parts of the sector government plays little role beyond providing a sound regulatory environment. The Commission’s view is that government’s role in sector development should be limited to where it utilises the sector for service delivery and to where it sees considerable community benefit from its investment. This view, that the sector should be largely responsible for its own development, reflects the importance of independence of the sector.The link between government funding and loss of independence has been well recognised: One of the key traditions learned the hard way in the early days nearly 75 years ago, was that to accept funding from outside sources was to create outside interference with the manner of spending, and vulnerability to sudden loss of or short term, not necessarily reliable, funding. (Dr Vanda Rounsefell, sub. DR260, pp. 1-2) The next three chapters turn to measuring the contribution of the sector at an aggregate, organisation and activity level. This is central to improving the understanding of the sector by government funders, philanthropists and NFPs